عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Having reviewed methods of creating varieties in rhythmic patterns making zarbies in Radif of Yousef Foroutan, I identify and compare these methods with the process of creation of rhythmic variety in nonmetric pieces of Foroutan in his Radif. For comparison purpose pieces with similar rhythmic structure in said zarbi pieces are listed and each part is compared with the immediate part after it. Where parts are different their variety and changes are evaluated. As Foroutan was one of the most important performers of old metric pieces and melodies composed by him are counted as significant pieces, the comparison allows us to identify his understanding of rhythm and application of Radif in his own style and accounts in composing zarbi pieces.
In this paper I am not analyzing melodic development and expansion but trying to study and identify how to use rhythmic factors in making an Iranian Classical Music genre with a phenomenological approach. zarbi pieces in this paper mean pieces of certain mode composed with relatively average tempo. As seen in Foroutan Radif some zarbi pieces may be referred to as Pish Daramad for being played in the beginning of a Dastgah or Avaz, however they are studied as zarbi pieces as well. Other metric pieces known as Char Mezrtab, Reng and Tasnif in Foroutan Radif are not studied as zarbi pieces in this paper. In this way 11 zarbi pieces from Foroutan Radif with the aforesaid attributes are studied in terms of rhythmic variety.
Changes like repetition with different performance techniques, dynamic changes and/or performance using different ornaments may be considered as types of variation in these pieces which are excluded from this paper for the fact that we only study rhythmic variations and changes here.
The comparison indicates in general that different combination of rhythmic patterns in consecutive melodic parts of metric pieces in Foroutan Radif created changes in the pieces referred to in this paper as 1- Increase in number 2- Decrease in number 3- Increase/Decrease in number.
Meanwhile, each rhythmic pattern may have been changed and diversified using below methods: 1- Division of duration 2- Integration of Duration 3- tone/Rest.
There are some other variation methods in Western Classical Music such as diminution or augmentation performed using changes in the melodies duration which are not common in Iranian Classical Music. These methods are not seen in metric pieces of Foroutan Radif studied in this paper. The method is not seen in other metric pieces having ordinary attributes of Iranian Classical Music.
Rhythmic variations in melodic ideas of zarbi pieces in Foroutan Radif follow the same process used by him in creation of variety in nonmetric pieces. This may indicates his conception and knowledgeable or unconscious use of rhythmic pieces’ attributes of nonmetric parts in composing zarbi pieces.
Rhythmic attributes of Yousef Forouan zarbi pieces may have been effective on performance of nonmetric part in his Radif. The method studied and considered in this study may be used in composing new metric and nonmetric pieces.