تأثیر سکوت بر دقتِ تشخیص زیروبمی موسیقی‌دانان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 هیت علمی دانشگاه هنر

2 عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی دانشگاه تهران

10.22059/jfadram.2020.278924.615307

چکیده

توانایی ادراک و تشخیص زیروبمی، در فرآیند درک موسیقی اصلی بنیادی است و بسیاری از کاوش‌ها در پی یافتن عواملی مؤثر جهت بهبودِ دقت این توانایی‌ هستند. تاکنون اثرات متفاوتی از سکوت در بازه‌های زمانی گوناگون، بر توانایی‌ تشخیص زیر و بمی انسان شناسایی شده است. مطالعه تحلیلی- توصیفی حاضر در پی یافتن تأثیر قرار دادن سکوت در بازه‌ای خاص، بین محرک‌های صوتی، بر دقتِ تشخیص زیر و بمی است؛ در این کاوش، تأثیر عوامل مختلف روانی و فیزیکی بر تشخیص زیروبمی تا حد امکان حذف و سپس اثر بخشی دیرندهای گوناگونِ سکوت‌ در بازه 500 تا2000 میلی ثانیه بر دقتِ تشخیص زیر و بمی موسیقی‌دانان ارزیابی شد. به منظور بررسی تأثیر سکوت بر تشخیص زیر و بمی، مقادیر مختلفی از تضادها (5، 10، 25 و 50 سِنت) استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که قرار گرفتن سکوت بین محرک‌ها با دیرندهای 500، 1000 و 2000 میلی ثانیه، دقتِ توانایی تشخیص تضاد زیر و بمی را، در دامنه بسامدی 25/523 هِرتز و شدت صوتی در حدود 5/72 دسی‌بِل، در موسیقی‌دانان بهبود می‌بخشد (05/0P < ). چنین اثری را می‌توان از منظر فیزیولوژیک با ساز و کار گوش داخلی در فرآیند شنوایی و از دیدگاه روانشناختی با عملکرد حافظه در فرآیند درک و داوری در مورد اصوات، توضیح داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Silence on Musician’s Pitch Discrimination Accuracy

نویسندگان [English]

  • Iman Fakhr 1
  • Amin Honarmand 2
1 Instructor professor
2 Music, Art Faculty, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The complex abilities of pitch perception and perceiving discriminating pitches are vital to the music perception phenomenon. Comprehensive studies have investigated the influence of intervening silence in various dimensions and have indicated its effect on human auditory ability. The present study provides additional information on the pitch discrimination ability, and how silence between stimuli affects our perception. We neutralized various effective factors and assessed the effect of perceivable durations of silences (in the range of 500-2000 ms) on pitch discrimination ability in musicians; Distractive factors were reduced to refine the effect of intervening silence, and assess pitch discrimination accuracy in varying silent inter-stimulus interval durations precisely. By using factors such as pure stimuli, moderate frequencies, suitable durations, and favorable intensities, the efficiency of the experiment was optimized. Varying degrees of pitch differentials (5, 10, 25, and 50 cents) were used to estimate the effect of silence on pitch discrimination. In current experiment, participants included 36 female and 65 male undergraduate and graduate music students from Tehran University of Art and the University of Tehran (mean age=23.31 years, SD=4.46). They had passed ear-training courses, and played a melodic instrument for a minimum mean (SD) time of 9.15 (3.42) years. The difference limen for frequency was estimated for all participants (mean± SD= 8.2±2.88 cents). Since the results of multiple test attempts on one person should be considered related or dependent, Friedman test was used to compare the answers of each participant across different silent ISI durations. Moreover, Fisher’s exact test was used to correct all analyses. To assess the influence of auditory sensitivity and musical experience in our experiment, and to find any correlation between these factors and the effect of silence intervention, participants were categorized into two groups: one based on their baseline mean DLF (8.2≤ and >8.2) and another based on the mean years of their musical instruction (≥ 9.15 years or

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • pitch discrimination
  • perception
  • silence
  • musician
Adelman, C., Perez, R., Nazarian, Y., Freeman, S., Weinberger, J., & Sohmer, H. (2010). Furosemide administered before noise exposure can protect the ear. The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology, 119(5), 342-349.
Bergan, J. R. (1966). Factors affecting pitch discrimination. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 15-21.
Brown, J. C., & Vaughn, K. V. (1996). Pitch center of stringed instrument vibrato tones. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 100(3), 1728-1735.
Brown, S. E. (1991). Determination of location of pitch within a musical vibrato. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 15-30.
Burns, E. M., & Ward, W. D. (1999). Intervals, scales, and tuning. The psychology of music, 2, 215-264.
Charron, S., & Botte, M. C. (1988). Frequency selectivity in loudness adaptation and auditory fatigue. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 83(1), 178-187.
Christman, R. (1954). Shifts in pitch as a function of prolonged stimulation with pure tones. The American journal of psychology, 484-491.
Demany, L., & Semal, C. (2008). The role of memory in auditory perception Auditory perception of sound sources (pp. 77-113): Springer.
Dowling, W. J. (1978). Scale and contour: Two components of a theory of memory for melodies. Psychological review, 85(4), 341.
Dowling, W. J., & Harwood, D. L. (1986). Music cognition. Academic Press.
Estis, J. M., Coblentz, J. K., & Moore, R. E. (2009). Effects of increasing time delays on pitch-matching accuracy in trained singers and untrained individuals. Journal of Voice, 23(4), 439-445.
Fyk, J. (1985). Vocal pitch-matching ability in children as a function of sound duration. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 76-89.
Geringer, J. M., & Witt, A. C. (1985). An investigation of tuning performance and perception of string instrumentalists. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 90-101.
Geringer, J. M., & Worthy, M. D. (1999). Effects of tone-quality changes on intonation and tone-quality ratings of high school and college instrumentalists. Journal of Research in Music Education, 47(2), 135-149.
Grassi, M., & Soranzo, A. (2009). MLP: A MATLAB toolbox for rapid and reliable auditory threshold estimation. Behavior research methods, 41(1), 20-28.
Guyton, A., & Hall, J. (2006). Textbook of medical physiology, 11th. WB Sounders Company, Philadelphia, USA.
Harris, J. D. (1952). The decline of pitch discrimination with time. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43(2), 96.
Hill, T. J., & Summers, I. R. (2007). Discrimination of interval size in short tone sequences. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 121(4), 2376-2383.
Levitt, H. (1971). Transformed up‐down methods in psychoacoustics. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 49(2B), 467-477.
Loosen, F. (1995). The effect of musical experience on the conception of accurate tuning. Music Perception, 291-306.
Madsen, C. K., Edmonson III, F. A., & Madsen Jr, C. H. (1969). Modulated frequency discrimination in relationship to age and musical training. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 46(6B), 1468-1472.
Massaro, D. W. (1970). Preperceptual auditory images. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 85(3), 411.
Massaro, D. W. (1972). Preperceptual images, processing time, and perceptual units in auditory perception. Psychological review, 79(2), 124.
Massaro, D. W., & Loftus, G. R. (1996). Sensory and perceptual storage: Data and theory. In Memory. Academic Press. USA.
Rakowski, A. (1976). Tuning of isolated musical intervals. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 59(S1), S50-S50.
Rakowski, A., & Hirsh, I. J. (1980). Poststimulatory pitch shifts for pure tones. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 68(2), 467-474.
Randel, D. M. (2003). The Harvard dictionary of music (Vol. 16): Harvard University Press.
Sek, A., & Moore, B. C. (1995). Frequency discrimination as a function of frequency, measured in several ways. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97(4), 2479-2486.
Sergeant, D. (1973). Measurement of pitch discrimination. Journal of Research in Music Education, 3-19.
Smith, A. R. (1934). AUDITORY FATIGUE 1. British Journal of Psychology. General Section25(1), 77-85.
Spiegel, M. F., & Watson, C. S. (1984). Performance on frequency‐discrimination tasks by musicians and nonmusicians. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 76(6), 1690-1695.
Sundberg, J. (1982). In tune or not?: a study of fundamental frequency in music practise: na.
Wang, Y., Hirose, K., & Liberman, M. C. (2002). Dynamics of noise-induced cellular injury and repair in the mouse cochlea. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 3(3), 248-268.
Yarbrough, C., & Ballard, D. L. (1990). The effect of accidentals, scale degrees, direction, and performer opinions on intonation. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 8(2), 19-22.
Yarbrough, C., Morrison, S. J., & Karrick, B. (1997). The effect of experience, private instruction, and knowledge of directional mistunings on the tuning performance and perception of high school wind players. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 31-42.
Zarate, J. M., Ritson, C. R., & Poeppel, D. (2013). The effect of instrumental timbre on interval discrimination. PloS one, 8(9), e75410.
Zatorre, R. J. (1983). Category-boundary effects and speeded sorting with a harmonic musical-interval continuum: evidence for dual processing. Journal of experimental psychology: human perception and performance, 9(5), 739.