مکانیزم"وال سال وا " وتاثیر آن بربیان بازیگر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده هنرهای نمایشی وموسیقی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

چکیده
            اگرچه مکانیزم وال سال وا، پیش از این در نیمه دوم قرن 17مطرح بوده، اما در گفتاردرمانی، کارکرد خود را حدوداً از30سال پیش، به ثبوت رسانده است. با این وجود، در محدوده آموزش بیان جهت هنرهای نمایشی، نادیده گرفته شده است. مقاله موجود، بیش از آنکه بخواهد به گفتار درمانی بپردازد، قصد دارد با طرح ویژگی های مکانیزم  فوق، نیاز به مطالعه هرچه بیشتر آن را متذکر شود، چرا که علاوه بر تاثیرگذاری مکانیزم  وال سال وا بر جریان آسیب شناسی بیان، مطالعه زیباشناسی بیان در محدوده آموزش را نیز در بر می گیرد. پس از شناخت محدوده اشتراکات آسیب شناسی بیان و زیباشناسی بیان، فرایند و عوامل تاثیرگذار بر شکل نهایی گفتار بررسی می شود. نشان خواهیم داد، مکانیزم مطروحه بسیار متغیر، و در عین حال جدانشدنی از فرایند احساسی درجریان تولید گفتار می باشد. سپس به بررسی تاثیرات هیجانی و روانی براین مکانیزم وخروجی نهایی آن پرداخته، سعی شده با پیشنهاد نمونه هایی از تمرینات، تاحد مقدور، تاثیرات مکانیزم را کنترل کرده، محققین و دست اندرکاران حوزه تولید هنرهای نمایشی را در جهت شناخت و توجه بیشتر به (مکانیزم وال سال وا)  جلب نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Val Sal Va Mechanism and its Impact on Performer’s Speech

نویسنده [English]

  • Sadegh Safaei
Faculty Member, Department of Performing Arts, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Although the function of neuro-vocal system of the human body was previously suggested in the second half of the 17th century by Italian surgeon Antonio Valsalva”, but its use in speech therapy during the past 30 years. However, its role has not been considered properly for teaching the speech method in the schools of dramatic arts. The present study aims to shed some light on the extreme need for more attention to this mechanism, rather than focusing on the speech therapy. The present research aims to pave the way for the application of a scientific achievement in teaching artistic tasks. In order to get started in this study, we should take something important into consideration. If we accept this reality that we do not speak to be satisfied of our voices; but we speak to influence the others’ behavior, amuse them, and inform them, we must be aware that each single speech characteristic (including the quality of effectiveness and being influenced) contains a wide range of components and consequently some of them should be included in our discussions on teaching speech to theatre students. As a matter of fact, Valsalva mechanism is activated by physical activities, as well as the emotions and passions of scene activities. After discussing about the specific characteristics of the above mentioned mechanism, and its effectiveness on the final scenic speech, we will be informed that passion is basically the shared component of speech pathology and elocution, which has unfortunately been neglected in speech exercises. The direct impact of this mechanism on the speech esthetics, both in realistic performing methods and its branches (such as naturalism and impressionism), and unreal and abstract forms is considerable. However, if inexistence of control on the negative aspects of the mechanism, the final form of speech would not be located in the expected range, and the voice type and its accompanied passion would influence both the performers and audiences simultaneously. Since the impacts of emotions and sensations are reflected in different behaviors of people, it is understandable that whether the Valsalva mechanism is formed or not. Controlling the emotions and sensations in line with the existing dramatic situation, it is possible to enhance the level of plausibility for the audiences. In order to reach this goal, the performer must have a defined technique in his hands to make the situation plausible to the audience, as well as minimizing the drawbacks of Valsalva mechanism at the same time. In this regard, some specific exercises are suggested in this article to control the emotions and sensations by making the training situation similar to the real one. In other words, doing so in a virtual reality as much as conveniently possible. In such situation we can be expected that combined mechanical exercises might be helpful for dramatic speech, alongside with the emotional exercises of the voice and speech. In addition, the entire exercises which are designed and conducted for this purpose might also be helpful to address the speech disorders with mental routs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Key words: Val Sal Va
  • Speech
  • Education
  • emotion
  • Fine arts