عنوان مقاله [English]
This article attempts to obtain an accurate definition of the structure of amal, one of the most significant forms of old Iranian music. In order to do this, all the definitions of amal, as recorded in the treatises of the Montazamiye School, have been analyzed and compared with each other. Then, after the clarification of the structural characteristics and content of amal, six types of this form are recorded with the help of formulas. Afterwards, the branches (sub-groups) of amal, namely kar and rikhte, have been explored. Afterwards, the structure and content of two tasnifs, recorded in the treatises Jame’ al-Alhan and Maqased al-Alhan by Abd al-Qadir Maraghi, have been analyzed and compared to the characteristics of amal in the treatises. It is concluded that the two aforementioned tasnifs are a type of amal. Therefore, by analyzing these tasnifs, a concrete example of the compositional method of vocal music in old Iranian music, as well as an instance of amal, is presented. The results of this article present a practical method for the composition of amal and its branches for Iranian composers.
After studying and comparing the available definitions of amal in the treatises of the Montazamiye School and analyzing the observations of Safavid writers, it is determined that amal in its primitive structure is composed of three constituents, namely sarkhane, miankhane, and bazgooy. However, it is also possible to multiply each of the miankhane and bazgooy constituents. Therefore, in an expanded form, amal has a five-part structure consisting of sarkhane, the first miankhane, the second miankhane, the first bazgooy and the second bazgooy. As it was mentioned, between these two initial and expanded forms, two possibilities may also occur, which result from the multiplication of only one of the constituents of miankhane and bazgooy.
The present research also demonstrates that two genres kar and rikhte, categorized as types of tasnif in the treatises, are derived from amal. The characteristics of kar can be explained in this way: if the initial sentence or sentences of the sarkhane of amal convey alfaz-e naqarat instead of poetry, amal-e mostahel or kar is formed. In addition, the characteristics of rikhte, as the second branch of amal, can be explained thus: with the removal of the independence of each of the constituents which shape amal, by suspending the meaning of the last phrase in each section, a musical piece is obtained which has lost the independence of meaning of the constituent parts. This lack of complete closure for each section and the formation of a kind of connection and dependence by suspending the ending of each section on a suspended degree lead to the formation of a form called rikhte derived from amal. The investigations of this article prove the flexible nature of old Iranian music forms and demonstrate that by relying on old forms, it is possible to create new forms that would fulfil the present needs of contemporary Iranian music.