بررسی نسبت تراژدی و امر شر در دو نمایشنامه‌ ادیپ شهریار و مکبث

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه دامغان

2 کارشناس ارشد ادبیات نمایشی از دانشگاه سوره

10.22059/jfadram.2022.345008.615685

چکیده

مفهوم شر در اساطیر و ادبیات نمایشی نقشی مؤثر داشته است؛ تا آن اندازه که پیدایش درام را در بسیاری از موارد منوط به وقوع امر شر دانسته‌اند. امر شر در مقاله حاضر یکی از سازه‌های اصلی شکل‌گیری تراژدی فرض شده است؛ به این معنا که نه تنها حضور و وجود امر شر در درام قابل گزینش نیست، بلکه میان امر شر و تراژدی رابطه‌ای دیالکتیکی برقرار است. نویسندگان این مقاله، در کار خود آشکارا و به تلویح، در صدد شرح و بسط این نکته‌اند که فراتر از مطالب بیان شده در تبیین تراژدی که عمدتاً مبتنی بر وجود نوعی نسبت و پیوند میان امر شر و بویژه شرور اخلاقی با تراژدی است، پیوند یا رابطه‌ای اساسی‌تر یافتنی است.

ادیپوس شهریارسوفوکل، مکبث شکسپیر و ملاقات بانوی سالخورده فردریش دورنمات که پدیدآورندگان این آثار هرکدام شرحی ویژه از مفهوم شر در اثر خویش ارائه داده‌اند، از منظر چگونگی اثرگذاری امر شر در شکل‌گیری درام مورد بررسی قرار گرفته اند. همچنین این نکته که چگونه مفهوم شر از مفهومی متکی به جهان اساطیری در عصر یونان باستان که با مفهوم تقدیر و سرنوشت ارتباط می‌یافت، به مفهومی متکی به انگاره‌های دینی مسیحیت در سده‌های میانه و دورۀ الیزابتن رسیده و سرانجام به مفهومی مرتبط با دنیای مدرن تغییر ماهیت داده است

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Relation between Tragedy and the Evil in two Plays: Oedipus the Rex and Macbeth

نویسندگان [English]

  • mitra alavitalab 1
  • farnoosh Rezaee Dorji 2
1 Assistant professor, Faculty of Art. Damghan university
2 M>A of dramatic literature . Soore University
چکیده [English]

The relationship Between Tragedy and Evil in two plays – Oedipus the Rex and Macbeth



The concept of evil has played a significant and influential role in mythology and dramatic literature from the past to the present; So many researchers have attributed the formation of drama to the occurrence of evil. They believe that Tragedy does not arise without evil, and tragedy is based by different aspects of evil. On this basis, in this article evil is considered as one of the main composing elements of tragedy formation; In other words, not only is the presence and existence of evil in drama, occasionally, and in the first place, and not an arbitrary and selectable subject, but beyond that, there is a two-way, organic and dialectical relationship between evil and tragedy. That is why the authors of this article, openly and implicitly, seek to explain and expand the point that goes beyond what is stated in the the tragedy, which is mainly based on the existence of a relationship between evil and especially moral evil. With tragedy, a more fundamental connection can be found.

It has also been studied how the concept of evil, from a concept based on the mythical world and belief in gods in ancient Greece, in attribution to destiny which was associated with the concept of destiny, to a concept based on the religious ideas of Christianity for centuries. It reached to the middle and Elizabethan period and finally changed its nature to a concept related to the modern world based on the prevailing ideas of modernity. With the advent of Christianity and its evolution, evil is associated with other religious concepts. In Elizabeth's time, evil, despite the slight influence of Christian ideas, became something influenced by humanist ideas. Of course, in this period, the devil and evil creatures still have a significant role in the formation and occurrence of evil. In many of the dramas of this period, such as Macbeth, evil was still transcendental in nature. On the other hand, in this period, as in ancient Greece, evil was associated with the main character Hamartia, but in this period, because we are dealing with a world based on Christian ideas, the main character Hamartia is usually considered sinful and evil to It is considered a sin. Entering the modern era, the concept of evil also changes its nature and undergoes a fundamental change and evolution. It is no longer the devil and otherworldly beings but the relations of the modern world such as capitalism and business that produce temptation. In other words, the representation of evil differs dramatically from the works of earlier periods: If in the works of the Elizabethan period, despite the strong tendency towards humanist (humanistic) ideas, evil was still related to spirituality, with the advent of the modern era, the connection between evil and spirituality was severed and evil was associated with capitalism and money. Finds. In these works, because the concepts related to the previous world have faded, the concept of salvation also loses its value.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • evil
  • tragedy
  • Oedipus the Rex
  • Macbeth