خوانشی تطبیقی از برساخت هویت در نمایش‌نامه‌های دو نسل از نمایش‌نامه نویسان ایرانی و غیر ایرانی (اکبر رادی و آگوست ویلسون، محمد چرمشیر و شیلا استفنسن)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارگردان ارشد تلویزیونی و مدرس گروه فرهنگ و هنر، دانشگاه جامع علمی کاربردی، تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه هنر، دانشکده هنر و معماری، پژوهشگر پژوهشکده کردستان شناسی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

10.22059/jfadram.2022.346699.615689

چکیده

جهان معاصر را عصر هویت‌های متکثر می‌نامند. کنکاش در مقوله «هویت» به‌عنوان یکی از مفاهیم مهم در حوزه‌ی مطالعات فرهنگی و اجتماعی، سال‌هاست وارد ادبیات پژوهشی ملت‌ها شده است. ایران به‌عنوان یکی از دیرنده‌ترین هویت‌های ملی همواره در مرکز توجه محققان قرار داشته است؛ اما در بحث مطالعات تطبیقی حوزه هویت، به‌ویژه در مطالعات هنر و مشخصاً در حوزه ادبیات نمایشی، کمبود این دست از پژوهش‌ها احساس می‌شود. این مطالعه، پژوهشی کیفی با تمرکز بر مقوله هویت در ادبیات نمایشی است. در یک خوانش تطبیقی بین دو نسل از نمایشنامه‌نویسان ایرانی و غیرایرانی (اکبر رادی و آگوست ویلسون، محمد چرمشیر و شیلا استفنسن) آثاری متناسب با موضوع بررسی و انتخاب شد. در قالب نظریه زمینه‌ای، مفاهیم مشترک هویتی آنان با روش کدگذاری‌های محوری و انتخابی تعیین گردید. مجدد این سرنمون‌ها با گواهمندی به نظریات استوارت هال درزمینه‌ی بازنمایی هویت، بازخوانی شدند. از این مطالعه می‌توان نتیجه گرفت: نمایشنامه‌نویسان موردبحث، در برساخت هویت نمایشنامه‌های خود از مؤلفه‌های مشترک زبانی، حافظه جمعی، مکان، سبک زندگی، فرهنگ و تقابل آن بافرهنگ دیگری و سیاسی‌کردن بدن استفاده کرده‌اند و در این میان تنها اختلاف معنی‌دار بین مؤلفه‌ها در اندک شاخصه‌هایی در سبک زندگی و جغرافیای نمایشنامه‌ها است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Comparative Reading of Identity Morphology in Plays by Two Generations of Iranian and Non-Iranian Playwrights (Akbar Radi and August Wilson, Mohammad Charmshir and Shelagh Stephenson)

نویسندگان [English]

  • mahdi khaki 1
  • Khosro Sina 2
1 Senior television director and lecturer in the Department of Culture and Arts, University of Applied Sciences(UAST), Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Art Department and Researcher of Kurdistan Studies Institute of Kurdistan University, Sanandaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Contemporary world can be considered as the age of Pluralistic Identities. Identity as one of the most important concepts in the field of nation’s socio-cultural studies has been questioned since many years ago. Dramatic Literature and Drama are the subjects to represent the sense of being in the suspended no-where; a place between Reality and Meta-reality that alongside running discourse Logic, follows Heterotopia structure. Questioning about identity is one of the most fundamental question in humans’ life which by that, people and society; from micro to macro scale present an image of what they are or should be. At the individual scale, identity is the gate of entering to social world, whilst it is the tool of survival, development and prospect among other societies in macro scale. In retrospect, the experience of immigration and diaspora would have dramatically affected contemporary identities. In this regard predicting the new identity’s side effects are a bit problematic, cause the roots of preceding identity were traditions and practices, and based on their long history, those traditions were resistant. Due to a lot of changes brought by modernity and afterward post-modernity with more intensity, contemplating the consequences (positive or negative) of issues got mor unpredictable.
As one of the most primitive national identities, Iran absorbs a lot of attention by researchers. However, in comparative study of identity field, specially in art and dramatic literature there is a shortage of these kind of research. Here is a qualitative research with concentration on identity in dramatic literature. Mutual concepts of selected plays from two generation of Iranian and non-Iranian Play writers (Akbar Radi and August Wilson, Mohammad Charmshir and Shelagh Stephenson) in a comparative study of contextual theory formwork through axial coding and selective coding were analyzed and determined. Then according to Stuart Hall's point of view in the category of identity and representation, these findings were re-read. Hall believed that cases existed by which media did the opposite and instead challenged the status quo; as a result, audiences did not always interpret the messages in the ways intended by the producers.
Arising during the late nineteenth century, early media theories developed in an historical context, often referred to as the era of mass society, when industrialization was on the rise and societies were transitioning from predominantly agrarian lifestyles to a more commercially centered industrialized structure based around the growth of large cities. The transformations of the industrial era were far more than economic, giving rise to changes in every aspect of daily life, including social structures and interpersonal interactions.
The result suggests that in both groups and generations the features of identity are similar or even equal. Although there are some un-mutual features which are unavoidable, there is not meaningful difference between them. In the Construction of Identity, those selected Iranian and non-Iranian dramatists have used the common components of language, collective memory, places, lifestyle, culture and its confrontation with another culture and, politicizing the body. The only significant difference between the components is in the lifestyle and geographic origin of the plays.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Identity
  • Comparative Study
  • Dramatic Literature
  • Construction of Identity
  • Lifestyle