تأثیرپذیری در موسیقی عاشیقی ترکان قشقایی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکدۀ هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد دانشکده موسیقی هنرهای زیبا- دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

چکیده

قشقایی‌ها مهاجرانی بوده‌اند که از مناطق مختلف به جنوب ایران آمده‌اند. در گذشته جامعه‌ی قشقایی جامعه‌ای طبقاتی بود و خاندان ایل‌خانی در رأس این نظام طبقاتی قرار داشت. موسیقی همواره در تمام طبقات اجتماعی ایل قشقایی حضور داشته است. کارگان عاشیق‌ها یکی از پنج کارگانِ فرهنگ موسیقایی قشقایی‌ست که تحولات بسیاری را تجربه کرده است؛ تغییراتی در سازبندی، تغییر فرم اجرا و تضعیف کارگان که در نهایت به از میان‌رفتن این سنت موسیقایی انجامید. عاشیق‌ها که در فرودست‌ترین طبقات اجتماعی ایل جای داشتند با حمایت ایل‌خانان به قوم قشقایی پیوستند و هنر خود را ارتقاء بخشیدند؛ در نهایت نیز با از میان‌رفتن نظام ایل‌خانی، سنت موسیقایی آنها نیز رو به‌انحطاط رفت. اغلب تأثیرپذیری‌ها و تغییرات حاصل از آن در موسیقی عاشیقیْ ریشه در نظام طبقاتی ایل دارند. تغییرات ایجادشده در این موسیقی نیز غالباً با حضور افرادی از طبقات بالای اجتماع همراه بوده که پذیرشِ مرجعیت این طبقات توسط مردمْ پذیرشِ تغییرات را نیز به‌همراه داشته است. این پژوهش که به معرفی موسیقی عاشیقی قشقایی و بررسی تأثیرپذیری در این کارگان می‌پردازد بر اساس کار میدانی در مناطق قشقایی‌نشین و گفت‌وگو با موسیقیدانان قشقایی به‌انجام رسیده و هدف از آن معرفی و بررسی تغییراتِ حاصل از برخوردهای فرهنگی، تغییر شرایط زندگی، شهری‌شدگی و تجددگرایی قشقایی‌ها در این موسیقی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Acculturation in Âshiqi Music of Qashqâyi Turks

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shima Hasanzadeh 1
  • Sasan Fatemi 2
1 School of Performing Arts and Music, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2 Professor, Department of Music, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Abstract

Qashqâyis were immigrants who came to southern Iran from different regions and formed a single ethnic group; a tribe consisting of Turks, Kurds, Lors and Arabs that the majority of whom are Turks. The main language of the Qashqâyis is Turkish, which has its roots in Caucasian Turkish. The provinces of Isfahan, Chahar Mahall Bakhtiari, Kohkiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, Khuzestan, Bushehr and most importantly, Fars constitutes the Qashqâyi regions of Iran. In the past, the Qashqâyi society was a hierarchical society consisting of different social classes and the Ilkhâni family was at the head of this hierarchical system, different from other classes, and led the tribal affairs; in this hierarchical system, musicians were placed in the lowest social classes. Music has always been present in all social classes of the Qashqâyi tribe. Qashqâyi musicians include Âshiqs, Changis, Sârebâns, non-professional musicians, and women, each with their own repertoires. The Âshiqs's repertoire is one of the five repertoires of the Qashqâyi musical culture that has undergone many changes. The Âshiqs migrated to Fars from the north-west regions and joined the Qashqâyi tribe. They, who were from the lowest social classes, joined the Qashqâyi tribe with the support of the Ilkhâns, improved their art and made changes in their repertoires. Eventually, with the disappearance of the Ilkhâni system, their musical tradition also declined. The Âshiqs performed music and were financially supported by the Ilkhâns. In fact, the musical life of the Âshiqs depended on the presence of the Ilkhâns which collapsed with the abolition of the Ilkhâni system. There have been many acculturations and changes in the music of Qashqâyi Âshiqs. Most of them have their roots in the hierarchical system of the tribe and have emerged in such a cultural context. In the hierarchical system of Qashqâyi society, elements were often accepted and preserved in this musical culture which were approved by the upper class of this society. In fact, the approach of the upper classes of the society was easily accepted by ordinary people and Âshiqs, musicians from the lower class. The changes in this music have often been accompanied by the presence of people from the upper classes of the society, that the acceptance of the authority of these classes by the people has been accompanied by the acceptance of the changes. The change in the living conditions and the urbanization of the Qashqâyis also provided a situation for the Âshiqs to experience isolation and their repertoires were removed from Qashqâyi music. In fact, lifestyle changes brought about many changes in this musical culture and caused a large part of the musical experience of this repertoire to diminish and disappear; most of these changes were influenced by intercultural contacts. This study, which introduces the Âshiqi's music of Qashqâyi and examines the acculturation in this repertoire, is based on fieldwork in Qashqâyi regions and interview with Qashqâyi musicians and aims to introduce and study the changes resulting from cultural encounters in this music.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Â؛ shiqi Music
  • Qashqâ؛ yi
  • Acculturation
  • Changes