عنوان مقاله [English]
Since the emergence of the concept of stream of consciousness in the field of fiction, first in the West and then in Iran, several texts have been written in this style. However, this method has received less attention in the field of drama, and has been studied more in the world of fiction. The present study examines the function and manifestation of "memory" from the perspective of stream of consciousness in contemporary Persian dramatic literature, with a focus on the play Khanomche va Mahtabi by Akbar Radi, one of the three major Iranian playwrights. This play is narrated through the eyes of several characters, each belonging to a specific class of society. All these people think about their past, and daydream about the wishes they wanted to fulfil, but are not successful to do so. Therefore, the concept of memory and revisiting each character’s previous issues is of utmost importance in this play. In the current research, after presenting the philosophical, psychological and literary contexts leading to the emergence of stream of consciousness in the West, the main components of stream of consciousness (narrative, discourse, time and plot) are introduced, and the narrative of this play has been taken into account from the perspective of memory. In the play Khanomche va Mahtabi, the playwright has made use of soliloquy, to present her feelings. Khanjun, the main character, presents a soliloquy which is direct and internal, as the author is absent and Khanjun’s internal experiences are directly said through her own mind. As a matter of fact, the author gets soaked in the mind of the character, in order to tell her story through her memories. Naturally, as Khanjun suffers from the mental problems of her age, in some cases, her speech seems illogical. The temporal order of events in her narration is distorted and in some cases, not comprehensible. However, we are connected to five other narrations through the speech of Khanjun. The speeches of this play (both by Khanjun and also the rest of the characters), are mostly in the form of soliloquy. The “aside” technique is also in use, and this gives us the idea that the characters feel as if they are speaking speaking to a virtual audience. Perhaps, this is a limitation in the mimetic nature of drama, which is solved by the reactions of the other characters. All these issues were studied in this play, and the results show that the existence of an "omniscient narrator" in the story is the main difference between the narrative of the stream of consciousness in the story and the drama; and this issue gives "memories" a special importance in this play. Unlike fictional literature, in which the stream of consciousness is seen through a third-person perspective, in the play, the personality perspective allows the audience to hear and perceive the character's memories without any mediation from their own mental language.