عنوان مقاله [English]
This study examines female musicians during the Qajar dynasty. The purpose of this article is to find out how female musicians worked in this period. The data provided by this study is based on 118 paintings belonging to that era, which indicate that the number of paintings of female musicians and dancers were more than men. One of the main reasons for the portrayal of women was the order of the kings and the decision of the patron. Although the king was a very decisive factor in this regard, the relation between gender and the musical instruments cannot be fully understood by relying on paintings alone. The elements that can be studied, however, showed that among the common instruments of the Qajar period such as: Tār, Setār, Daf, Naqāra and finger cymbals were seen more in the hands of women whereas the Tonbak, Kamānče and Santour were seen more in the hands of men. In addition to the instruments mentioned, some instruments such as Tanbire Nobān, Dāyere and Čang have only been seen once in the iconographic examples. The Čang became obsolete from the late Safavid, but the illustrator of the book One Thousand and One Nights has depicted a relatively imaginary instrument. In the Qajar period, unlike the previous periods, -such as the Timurid and Safavid, painters were less concerned about drawing with details. In the paintings of this period, the number of mentioned components varies greatly. There are two possible reasons for this negligence: lack of knowledge of Qajar painters about music and instrumental details and drawing the general state of the instruments. Regarding the instruments, the difference that can be seen compared to the previous eras is showing the perspective, the bowl of instruments, in the paintings.
In this study, only in two paintings, a man performing acrobatic moves and two men dancing together were seen, and also in a painting of Kamal-Al-Molk, “drag queens” were seen. Naturally, considering that the painters mainly depicted the interior of the court and the women's gatherings, the absence of drag queens in such occasions and subsequently paintings, can be justified. However, according to some written sources, sometimes these boys had the privilege to go inside the women’s quarters. In this study, the presence of women in the paintings, was divided into three categories: single, female and mixed gatherings. In the mixed ones, female dancers and musicians were seen around and next to the caliphs, who were probably the king's women. Other paintings depict women in the presence of the caliphs and his guests, a woman in a group of men, and a group of musicians including male and female dancers and musicians. Compared to paintings from previous periods such as the Safavid, it can be said that the above dancers were prostitutes. Numerous dances were also common during this period, and dancing with knives and [wine] glasses was new compared to previous periods. This research is fundamental in terms of purpose, analytical-descriptive in terms of method and historical in terms of nature.