نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استاد تمام دانشکدة سینما تئاتر، دانشگاه هنر، تهران
2 کارشناس ارشد سینما
عنوان مقاله [English]
This essay examines the most important elements on the formation of globalization, and cosmopolitan thought, and then examines its effects on Qatsi trilogy directed by Godfrey Reggio. The term of globalization is a significant concept in the field of interdisciplinary studies and has entered into other broad fields such as sociology, political, economic, moral and cultural orientations. Throughout modern history, intellectuals such as Immanuel Kant, tried to understand cosmopolitanism and world peace. Kant in his book “Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch” used these notions as a theoretical framework by reconsidering the issue of world peace, and puts before the rulers the principles that he believes will lead to the establishment of lasting and eternal peace in the world. Also, we have referred to the views of other theorists in this field. In this article, Godfrey Reggio's trilogy including Koyaanisqatsi: Life out of Balance (1982), Powaqqatsi: Life in Transformation (1988), and Naqoyqatsi: Life as War (2002) are analyzed based on this idea. The fundamental question addressed here is to what extent Qatsi trilogy has been influenced by globalization and cosmopolitanism ideology, and also how much these movies have used the basic concepts of this ideology. In Koyaanisqatsi, we refer to Anthony Giddens' view of modernity and the globalization of inseparable phenomena, one of which cannot be explained or understood without the other. According to Giddens, "modernity is inherently globalizing". He defines this as a spatial-temporal process when it can be identified in any important aspect of contemporary social life. Throughout the film, we see countless elements of modernity that, according to Giddens, lead us to globalization. In Naqoyqatsi we are confronted with an issue called war and terrorism, which is one of the hidden concepts of this documentary. Therefore, referring to Kant's democratic peace by which he pointed to the possibility of avoiding war, and raised the issue of tolerance, emphasizing the need for education in this field among societies to prevent war. So we come to the important issue of tolerance, and whether humanity, made up of governments and their citizens, can achieve peace through tolerance in a world where the fires of small and large wars are rising at every moment. The reason seems to be that without tolerance, there will be neither a global citizen nor a cosmopolitan. In Powaqqatsi, we have addressed the issue of the arduous work of labors in the third world for the advancement of modern societies. Then, based on John Rawls' ideal theory of the rationality of universal justice, we have tried to provide an appropriate answer to the question of injustices in the real world. This film calls for a global change for the benefit of humanity and the environment. Finally, according to the analysis and examination of the various dimensions of this idea, we conclude that this idea has influenced this trilogy from different angles due to its coverage of universal themes and broad semantic dimensions.