نقشِ توصیف‏ در گفتارِ «شخصیت‏های بی ‏نام» در تراژدی‏های یونان باستان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشکدۀ ادبیات و زبان های خارجی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرج، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری رشتۀ پژوهش هنر دانشکدۀ هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس. تهران.

چکیده

توصیف در تراژدی‏های یونان باستان جایگاهی بسیار مهم دارد و هستۀ داستانی وپی‎رنگ غالب این تراژدی‏ها، علاوه بر آنکه بر بنیاد کنش و گفتار قهرمانان شکل می‏گیرد، بر اساسِ توصیف نیز استوار گشته است. یکی از انواع شخصیت‏هایی که در ترادی‏های یونان باستان نقش مهمی ایفا می‏کند، «شخصیت بی‏نام» است که در زمرۀ اشخاصِ فرعی تراژدی جای دارد و تراژدی‏نویسان معمولاً برای آنها نامی برنگزیده‏اند و از آنها با عناوین کلی و عام، مانند پیک، مربی، دایه، نام می‏برند. هدف از این پژوهش، کشفِ شیوه‏های پیشبرد پی‎رنگ تراژدی، توسط گفتار ِتوصیفیِ «شخصیت‏های بی‏نام»، در گزیده‏ای از تراژدی‏های یونان باستان نوشتۀ آیسخولوس، سوفوکل و اوریپید است. پرسش اصلیِ این است که «شخصیت بی‏نام»، چگونه و با چه الگویی در به کاربردنِ توصیف، در بازآفرینی روایت دراماتیک تراژدی‏ها از روایت اسطوره‎ای، نقش ایفا می‏کند؟ پژوهشِ حاضر، به شیوه‫ای توصیفی- تحلیلی و از طریق ایجاد جدول در طبقه‏بندیِ انواع توصیف از زبان «شخصیت‏های بی‏نام»، به نتیجه می‏رسد که شخصیت‏های بی‏نام اگرچه در تراژدی نقش فرعی بر عهده دارند، اما در پیشبرد پی‏رنگِ روایت دراماتیک، نقشی اساسی و غیر قابل حذف دارند و گاه، مهم‏ترین نقاط عطف در نمایشنامه‏ها، مثل ترغیب شخصیت اصلی به عمل، یا آوردن خبر مرگ شخصیت‏های اصلی و یا آشکار ساختن راز و مانند اینها بر عهده‏ی آنها است. ‬

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The role of description in the speech of "anonymous characters" In the Greek tragedies

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ataollah Koopal 1
  • Saboureh Rangraz 2
1 Associate Professor of Literature and Foreign Languages Faculty, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Karaj. Iran
2 PHD student in Research of Art, Tarbiat Modares University. Tehran. Iran
چکیده [English]

The role of description in the speech of "anonymous characters"

In the Greek tragedies



Abstract:

Description as a dramatic element in the explaining actions, events, objects, and special dramatic situations is an important technique in Greek tragedies and their plots, the hero's actions and speeches are based on the description. Furthermore description is the way in which the Greek playwrights announce audiences with the events of the "background" of plot, "pre story" and especially the "offstage events". One of the important kinds of characters who had played a significant role in the Greek tragedies is the "anonymous character". Anonymous character is usually a name for some kind of sub- Characters who are commonly named in general titles not in specific names, such as spades, educators, and nurses. The purpose of this study is to explore the ways of expanding the plot of tragedy, by descriptive speech of "anonymous characters", in selected tragedies written by Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. The main question of present essay is how and by which patterns the "anonymous characters" assist to create the dramatic narrative of tragedy based on Greek mythology? The present research had been achieved in a descriptive-analytical method and by classifying of different types of descriptions in the anonymous characters dialogs and also concluded the anonymous characters, although they have a sub - role in tragedies, but they have an important role in developing of the dramatic narratives, such as encouraging the hero's to action, or giving death news of main characters or revealing their secrets. These functions are fully classified in the conclusions section tables. In Greek tragedies the plot of drama is based on mythological narrative. Greek playwrights create their plays on the basis of famous stories and adapt great characters into their plays. In this regard it is notable that there are many characters who are not the main characters and they are so called sub characters. It is important about these characters that they are near to main characters such as protagonists and antagonists. The function of them in this essay is the main approach to find how they can develop the plot and how they can inform the audience about anything has been occurred at offstage. It is believable that they have insight about the events and about the pre story of drama and the back ground of the play. In this regard, these anonymous characters maybe can observe many facts and truths in the plot of plays. The definition of description is a statement that gives details about someone or something. Descriptions of anonymous characters are also about geographical and historical context of the play. In ancient Greece playwrights have written hundreds plays. But only 31 plays have remained and in more of them we can find anonymous characters. Their dialogues guide us to find out the setting of plays and reveals the biography of main characters and also reveals their aspirations. It seems this essay can be a good guide for next researchers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Description
  • anonymous character
  • Speech
  • Agamemnon
  • Electra
  • Hippolytus