عنوان مقاله [English]
Throughout the history of art, the study of metaphor has been among the most important discussions within various art forms, including literature. In the modern era, the analysis and application of metaphor is expanded over various areas including cognitive sciences, philosophy, and performing arts. A new approach to metaphor is the theory of “conceptual metaphors” proposed by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson which recognizes the human body and the concepts regarding physical, tangible aspects of life as the origin of many of the metaphors. In theatrical directing, “mise en scene” is one of the major elements of the play which contributes significantly to the creation of the visual aesthetics on the stage. Nowadays, mise en scene not only affects the positions of the actors and their motions, but also includes other major elements such as the composition, picturization, and motion with all the other elements of performance such as the decor, outfits, music, and lighting. The question presented in this study is that how the visual metaphors on the stage are created through mise en scene. Since visual and physical forms are of great significance in theater, the approach employed by the present study towards mise en scene and its relationship with visual metaphors is based on the theory of conceptual metaphors. In order to analyze this proposition, this approach is applied to the play Eighth Journey of Sindbad by Bahrām Beyzai which includes various metaphors in its text and performance to assess its validity. In order to answer the presented question which regards the process of creating pictorial metaphors and the metaphors that are indicated in the original text through mise en scene, first the generalized metaphors and specifically the main conceptual metaphors in Eighth Journey of Sindbad are marked: “Life is a journey”, “Time passing is motion”, “Argument is war” and “orientational and spatialization metaphors”. Then various scenes of the text representing these metaphors are shown and their mise en scenes are analyzed in a way that describes the process of shaping of the intended metaphor as a visual metaphor based on the concept of the very scene through mise en scene. Moreover, various scenes of the original text of the play are analyzed considering the aspects of metaphor in composition and picturization, motion and action, and furthermore the role of audio-visual elements such as decor and scenic design and accessories, makeup and costume design, lighting, music and sound design to create conceptual and pictorial metaphors through mise en scene. According to the results of this study, the visual metaphors can be created through mise en scene, stage composition, and audio-visual elements of the play on the stage. The metaphors in the text of the play can be represented in the form of conceptual and visual metaphors. The creation of such metaphors, in addition to helping to convey the meaning and concept of the work, contributes to its narration and improves the visual richness and pictorial aesthetics of the play.