عنوان مقاله [English]
Throughout the history of art, the study of metaphors has been among the most important discussions within various art forms, especially in literature. In the modern era, the analysis and application of metaphor is expanded over a wider spectrum of disciplines, including cognitive sciences, philosophy, and performing arts. There is a classic view in regards to metaphor, maintaining that the term is just a linguistic phenomenon and not a conceptual one. On the other hand, a new approach to the concept of metaphor, is the theory of “conceptual metaphors” proposed by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson. This second view, known as the cognitive view, recognizes the human body and the concepts regarding physical, tangible aspects of life as the origin of many metaphors. As we read in the introduction to their theory, Lakoff and Johnson believe in three main findings based on the cognitive science. The findings are as follows: the mind is innately embodied; thought is generally unconscious; and abstract concepts are primarily metaphorical. In theatrical directing, “mise-en-scene” is one of the major elements of the play which contributes significantly to the creation of visual aesthetics on stage. Nowadays, mise-en-scene not only affects the positions of the actors and their motions, but also includes other major elements such as composition, picturization, and motion with all the other elements of performance such as decor, costumes, music, and lighting. The question presented in this study is how visual metaphors on stage are created through mise-en-scene. Since visual and physical forms are of great significance in theater, the approach employed by the present study towards mise-en-scene and its relationship with visual metaphors is based on the theory of conceptual metaphors. In order to analyze this proposition, this approach is applied to Bahram Beyzai’s play, Eighth Journey of Sindbad. This work includes various metaphors in its text and performance thus serving as a good example for the use of metaphors and their significance in this study. In order to answer the presented question which regards the process of creating pictorial metaphors and metaphors that are indicated in the original text through mise-en-scene, first the generalized metaphors and specifically the main conceptual metaphors in Eighth Journey of Sindbad are marked: “life is a journey”, “time passing is motion”, “argument is war” and “orientational and spatialization metaphors”. Various scenes of the text representing these metaphors are shown and their mise-en-scenes are analyzed in a way that describes the process of shaping the intended metaphor as a visual metaphor based on the concept of the very scene through mise-en-scene. The aspects of metaphor in composition and picturization, motion and action are particularly analyzed. In addition to that, the role of audio-visual elements for devising metaphorical mise-en-scenes are examined—such as decor and scenic design and accessories, makeup and costume design, lighting, music and sound design. According to the results of this study, the visual metaphors are capable of being created through mise-en-scene, stage composition, and audio-visual elements of the play on the stage.