تاریخ مفهوم مکتب اصفهان: بررسی گفتمان‌های هویت‌ساز در تاریخ معاصر موسیقی دستگاهی شهر اصفهان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه موسیقی دانشکده هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی پردیس هنرهای زیبا دانشگاه تهران. ایران

2 مدیر گروه موسیقی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران

10.22059/jfadram.2021.296681.615492

چکیده

در مقالۀ حاضر عنوان «مکتب اصفهان» با استفاده از رویکرد انتقادی ـ گفتمانی، در بستر تاریخ معاصر موسیقیِ دستگاهی شهر اصفهان بررسی شده است. این نوشتار نشان می‌دهد که عنوان «مکتب اصفهان» در بستر موسیقی دستگاهیِ شهر اصفهان تقریباً اوایل دهۀ چهل شمسی متولد شده و در سال‌های بعد رشد و قوام یافته است. دو طیف عمده از این شهر به تبیین ویژگی‌های «مکتب اصفهان» پرداخته-اند: طیف سپنتا ـ کسائی ـ عمومی و طیف یاوری ـ کاظمی. طیف نخست نظراتش عمدتاً معطوف به سبکی در آواز بوده و به‌ویژه بر مؤلفه‌هایی چون بداهه و خلاقیت تأکید داشته است؛ طیف دوم عمدتاً بر مؤلفه‌هایی نظیر تَعَدُد و قدمت گوشه‌ها تأکید داشته است. این مقاله نشان می‌دهد که نظرات طیف نخست غالباً معطوف به وقایع موسیقایی پایتخت بوده و رویکرد طیف دوم در تقابل با طیف نخست بوده است. این نوشتار با استفاده از رویکردهای نظری ـ انتقادیِ رایج در علوم انسانیِ معاصر، و رشته‌هایی چون اتنوموزیکولوژی، تاریخ و علوم‌‌سیاسی در ارتباط با جنبش‌ها و گفتمان‌های احیاگر و اصالت‌گرا، به بررسی این مقوله در تاریخ معاصر موسیقی دستگاهی پرداخته است. این نوشتار نهایتاً مقولة «مکتب اصفهان» را پدیده‌ای برخاسته از شرایط دوران مدرن و جدید در بستر تاریخ معاصر موسیقی دستگاهی می‌داند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Conceptual History of Maktab-e- Esfahan: Identity - making Discourses in Contemporary History of Iranian Classical Music in the City of Esfahan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Pouya Nekouei 1
  • Hooman Asadi 2
1 Music Faculty, Fine Arts college of the University of Tehran. Tehran, Iran.
2 Head, Music Department, Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

This arcticle critically assesses the concept of Maktab-e- Esfahan in contemporary history of Persian classical music in the city of Esfahan. As it is argued, Maktab –e- Esfahan is one of the concepts in Persian classical music that has associated music with the question of identity. It is argued that this term, unlike what is generally projected by its proponents, is a modern phenomenon. Therefore, the birth of Maktab-e- Esfahan is situated in the early 1960's and the exponents of this idea are divided in to two groups: (1) The Sepanta – Kasaei – Omumi faction and; (2) the Yavari – Kazemi wing. This concept initially came into the written discourse with the writings of Sasan Sepanta in the music journal of Muzik-e- Iran in the early 1960's. The debates around this term continued later in the 1970's with performance of a Radif narrative by Hassan Kasaei, the Ney virtosuso and also were reflected in his interviews. In the other wing, Hossein Yavari, also a Ney performer, proposed his orthodox ideas visa-vis Radif and its roots in the city of Esfahan in 1960's and 1970's. It is discussed that the orthodox views of Yavari were targeted against Hassan Kasaei's nationally recognized position as a Ney virtuoso.
On the other hand, Hassan Kasaei's views, early in 1970's were a reaction to the music revivalists of Tehran, and specifically the acitivities of Nourali Borumand, one of the leading revivalists in Tehran, and his emphasis on the significance of the late nineteenth century Qajar repertoire. As it is argued, Kasaei was for many years, one of the most important advocates of the idea. In addition, it is argued that Kasaei's views were formed as reaction to the changing nature of music consumption in the mid 1960's.
Yavari's orthodox views, in post-revolutionary Iran, were pursued by one of his pupils, Abbas Kazemi, who gave a different impetus to a more orthodox narrative of Radiff and its roots in Esfahan. His orthodox views too, like his predecessor, were directed against the other faction and the national and local status of Hassan Kasaei as Ney performer.
This article also submits that the Sepanta – Kasaei – Omimi faction had always enjoyed an influential position within musical circles of the city. This authority was on the one hand related to the position of Hassan Kasaei as a virtuoso and on the other hand to the academic background of its experts. Moreover, this wing always enjoyed financial resources. In contrast, the Yavari – Kazemi wing was the subaltern of the city's musical life. This was partly because of the powerful position of the other fation and the weak economic resources of the musicians of this wing.
This article, in forming its argument has benefited from various theories regaring the questions of revival and identity from disciplines of Ethnomusicology and contemporary critical – case studies in history and political science. As result, throughout this article, Maktab–e-‌Esfahahn is considered as a discursive category that is associated with questions of identity and the process of identity- making.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • “Maktab-e-Esfahan
  • Identity-making Discourses
  • Contemporary History of Iranian Music
  • Dastgahi Music in Esfahan