نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
مدیرگروه کارشناسی های ارشد نوازندگی موسیقی ایرانی و اتنوموزیکولوژی پردیس فارابی دانشگاه هنر تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
In the history of Sufism life in the Safavid government, music returns to Shaykh Safi al-Din Ardebili (650-735 lunar calendar) during the Ilkhani era. His life was spanned the reign of nine Ilkhani kings. He not only formed one of the Tasavof branches in Ilkhani era, but also played a significant role in the formation of the Safavid kingdom. He was the ancestor of Shah Esameel I (907-930 lunar calendar). The spiritual influence of this particular Tasavof branch can be traced back to the Safavid era. In this background of Sufism, performing music had a very valuable role as an important factor. One important and influential works is Safavata al-Safa by Darvish Tavakkoli ebn-e Esmaeel known as Ibn Bazaz Ardebili, written for Sheikh Safi. Among his description, the author describes the lives of other Sheikhs such as Sheikh Zahed Gilani (the master of Sheikh Safi) and Sheikh Sadr-e-din (who died in 794 lunar calendar, and was the son and heir of Sheikh Safi). This book includes 12 chapters and each chapter is divided into specific sections and each section, consists of stories. Among the stories of this book, there are some significant stories about music. The author not only describes various functional aspects of music in spiritual life, but also infers to the social situation of music of the era as well. This article aims to investigate the role of music in spiritual and social dimensions of the time. Other relevant library resources have been used to analyze its musical content. The applied resources emphasize more spiritual and social aspects; however there are three important musical elements in this work. First, the topic of Samaa, with a mainly philosophical discussion, is divided into three categories of: general, specific and very special types. Regarding the disagreements of the intellectual processes of the era, especially the general type, it can be implicitly perceived that Sheikh Safi and his son were cautious about their speech and behavior, although all three types were practiced in Sheikh Safi' Khanqah. The second one is Qawwali. Gofteh had a meaningful concept as a technical term in Qawwali of the Sufism poems of Attar and Molavi. The existance of different poetic meters provides this assumption that there have been many different Advar-e iqayi. Due to the long duration of the sound, the melodies of these Ghazals are likely to be repeatable; it can be perceived that they have been partially improvised in their performance. The third issue was Qawalan. The Qawalans could have been divided into three social groups: courtiers, Khanqahi, and folk. The first group had a higher social status, the second group was mostly active in Khanqahs and therefore it had a relative lower social status. The third group had a seemingly lower social dignity, was active in musical environment of society. The Qawalan of the Khanqahi apparently played a role in playing the Nay and the Guyandgi. It can be predicted that the conditional activity of singers and musicians in Safavid era depending on the following religious principles can be traced back to this background.