نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
عنوان مقاله [English]
Karl Jung’s analytic psychology has often been used to study literary texts. Jung views personality as a system comprising of such subsystems as self (consciousness), individual unconscious, collective unconscious, anima, animus and shadow, which interact with one another though apparently they are autonomous. Jung’s innovation in psychology is to suggest that the unconscious is not solely individual. Rather, it has a collective element as well. The collective unconscious is shared by all humans irrespective of time, race, culture, etc. It consists of archetypes i.e., universal primordial images that are manifested in dreams, myths, rites, etc. Though archetypes remain dormant in the depths of the unconscious, they surface once they are triggered by internal or external causes as known symbols. Archetypes are manifested via a variety of images including mother, child, old wise man, and hero. In Jung’s view, all elemental aspects of man’s life such as birth, growth, family, and such matters as rivalry among brothers are all archetypal in nature. Analytic psychology holds that artistic creativity is either a result of pure innovation or inspired by the unconscious. Originality in artistic creativity, however, is associated with the latter where symbolic and allegorical artistic works inspired by universal primordial images can be created. Thus, self-expression aptitude through primordial images makes it possible for the artist to transfer the experiences of the world within the mind to the real world through artistic genres. As such, the characters and symbols in the text provide the analyst with necessary tools for textual analysis. Furthermore, since myths and archetypes are studied in both analytic psychology and literary analysis, a link could be established between the two, which opens a new and promising field of interdisciplinary studies. Drama as a literary genre yields itself well to such interdisciplinary analyses within the framework of analytic psychology. Esmail Khalaj is a well-known and prominent Iranian dramatist, film and theater actor. His many dramas center on the lives of ordinary people, providing profound insights into the societal and cultural aspects of their lives. Thus, he is considered to be a dramatist with a distinct style in genre of the so called coffee house drama. He is also familiar with playwriting techniques and well aware of the pain of society, especially the poor and harmed social class. Khalaj has psychological understanding of situations and characters with mental and behavioral disorders. This attitude is also clearly seen in his works. Written in 1981, one of the dramas in Khalaj’s book titled Seven Short Plays i.e., the sixth drama yields itself well to archetypal criticism. The present research employs content analysis. It is benefited from library sources through notetaking and other data collection techniques. The aim of the study is to identify archetypes in the narrative in question. The results reveal strong and systematic presence of a number of archetypes in the drama. It is concluded that archetypes identified by Jung has affected the dramatist so profoundly that he has used them as the fundamental elements of the drama in question.