سیر دگرگونی ساختاری موسیقی جان کِیج (مطالعه موردی: آهنگ سازی، نُت نویسی، جایگاه مخاطب)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجو/تربیت مدرس

2 دانشیار گروه پژوهش هنر، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

جان کِیج با گریز از سنّت­های موسیقی گذشته و فرارَوی از مرزهای متعارف آن، بر فکر و عمل موسیقایی نیمه­ دوم قرن بیستم تأثیر عمیقی داشت. این تأثیرگذاری، به­واسطه همکاری وی با جنبش­های نوظهور آوانگارد معاصرش و تأثیرپذیری از آنها و همچنین نوآوری­ها و ابتکارات متعدّدی بود که منجر به شکل­گیری گستره وسیعی از آثار بسیار متنوع و خلاقانه در طول دوران حرفه­ایِ او شد. امّا پژوهش­های اندکی، روند تاریخی و عوامل مؤثر بر تحولات ساختاری آثار موسیقایی وی را به­منظور تبیین سیر و چگونگی این تحولات ساختارشکنانه، مورد توجّه قرار داده­اند. ازاین­رو، پژوهش حاضر با رویکرد تاریخی-تحلیلی و بهره­گیری از منابع کتابخانه­ای، سعی در بررسی­ سیر تحول ساختار موسیقی کِیج در سه سطح آهنگ­سازی، نُت­نویسی و جایگاه مخاطب، در طول دوران حرفه­ای وی، نموده­­است. پژوهش حاضر در سیر تاریخی، طبقه­بندی شده در سه نقطه­ عطف، نشانگر گذار به تجارب و ساختاری نامتعیّن، باز و نامحدود در موسیقی است. در بُعد تحلیلی نیز، کِیج، با کاربَست اصوات و ابزار روزمره، نویز و سکوت به­عنوان مواد موسیقایی، طرح مقولات هم­زمانی و مکان در موسیقی، دوری جُستن از تخصّص­گرایی در آهنگ­سازی، نُت­نویسی گرافیکی و نامتعیّن و دخیل نمودن اجراگر و مخاطب در شکل­گیری اثر، به ساختارشکنی و بازتعریف مجدّدِ معنای موسیقی دست می­زند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Process of Structural Transformation of John Cage’s Music (Case Study: Composition, Notation, Audience)

نویسندگان [English]

  • zahra akhoundi 1
  • reza afhami 2
  • Asghar Fahmifar 2
1 student/tarbiat modares
2 Associate professor, Tarbiat Modares university
چکیده [English]

John Cage, the leading post-war and one of the most influential musicians of the second half of the 20th century, for several decades was in the center of the avant-garde movement in America. By separating from the musical traditions of the past and utilizing a wide range of initiatives and innovations, he influenced a larger discussion on the role of music and work of a musician. There are two fundamental factors in many of Cage’s works; first, his ever-searching mind that severely responds to the changes of his surroundings and has had many innovations under the influence of them. Second, his concentration on a series of nonstop attempts to criticize Western art and music, this one is considered as the central point of his professional career. Cage's lack of interest in harmony and counterpoint redirected him to choose a path which was different from Schoenberg and his predecessors and while other musicians believed that harmonic structure pays attention to the musical sounds, he not only recognized structure as time divisions, but appointed everyday noise and silence as equivocal important factors as tonal sounds. Although there have been many biographies and researches on Cage, few studies have investigated the subject of this paper which explores the historical process of his music at the three levels of composition, notation, and audience to explain the course of these changes and their influence on the alternation of the dominant concepts of Western music in each phase. Therefore, the present study from a historical perspective tries to clarify the structural changes of Cage’s musical works to understand his view toward the mentioned transformations. In other words, the paper has raised this question that along with different ideas of Cage, how has the musical structure of his works changed? For this purpose, in the current research, two methods, historical and descriptive-analytical, have been used; the historical trend tries to explore the process and the way that ideas have been applied and depicts the milestones of his musical practice. The descriptive-analytical method aims at surveying structural changes of Cage’s musical works during the most important periods of his work. From a structural perspective and in a historical course, this research shows three milestones in applying Cage’s innovative ideas; the first one (late 1930s to late 1940s): Percussion and Prepared Piano; the second milestone (1950s): chance operation and graphic notation; the third milestone (late 1960s): elements of acting and theatrical performance. These three turning points in a historical course reveal a gradual and hierarchal change of a structure with a closed and solid space to a structure with an open and flexible space. In addition, in the analytical aspect, applying daily sounds and tools as the musical materials, putting aside the professional skills in producing and performing pieces, removing notation and score, replacing the oral presentation of musical ideas and generating audience are examined and justified as the central thesis of this research. By deconstruction of the generality of composition structures, notation, and audience status, Cage found a unique and personal structure that besides changing the dominant concepts in the Western music, presents a new definition for their meaning.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • John Cage
  • 20th-century Music
  • Composition
  • Notation
  • Audience
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