طراحی الگوی مدیریت مخاطرات تولید فیلم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد تهیه کنندگی نمایش، دانشکده تولید، دانشگاه صدا و سیما، تهران،

2 استادیار دانشکده تولید، دانشگاه صدا و سیما، تهران

3 دانشیار مهندسی صنایع، دانشکده صنایع، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران جنوب

چکیده

 
فرآیند تولید فیلم‌های سینمایی و سریال‌های تلویزیونی، بعضاً آنچنان که مدیران تولید پیش‌بینی و یا برنامه‌ریزی کرده‌اند، پیش نمی‌رود. زیرا مخاطرات زیادی با منشاء عوامل درونی و بیرونی هستند که می‌توانند علی‌رغم پیش‌بینی‌ها و برنامه‌ریزی‌ها، موجب بروز اشکالات جزیی یا اساسی در روند تولید فیلم شوند. امروزه می‌توان برای کاهش احتمال وقوع مخاطرات، کاهش تاثیر مخاطرات در روند تولید و کاهش خسارات ناشی از وقوع آنها، از دانش مدیریت مخاطرات بهره گرفت و با کسب آمادگی لازم برای تشخیص و کنترل سریع مخاطرات اقدام کرد. مقاله حاضر، به لحاظ هدف، نتیجه یک تحقیق کاربردی است که مبتنی بر استفاده از تحقیقات پیشین و آرای کارشناسان صنعت سینما در ایران است. در این جستار سعی شده، متناسب با شرایط بومی تولید پروژه‌های سینمایی، روشی سیستماتیک برای شناسایی، تحلیل، اولویت‌بندی و راهکارهای کنترل و مقابله با مخاطرات تولید ارائه شود. در این تحقیق، مخاطرات تولید در دو گروه مرتبط با مکان فیلمبرداری، عوامل انسانی و تجهیزات مورد توجه قرار گرفته‌اند. سپس از روش تحلیل حالات شکست و آثار آن در اولویت‌بندی مخاطرات و روش تصمیم‌گیری چند معیاره، برای معرفی گزینه‌های مناسب محدودکننده مخاطرات استفاده شده است. نتایج 9 مخاطره بحرانی و 6 راهکار مقابله با آنها را به ترتیب اولویت معرفی کرده است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Designing a Model for Film Production Risk Management

نویسندگان [English]

  • Poya Raissi 1
  • Masoud Naghashzadeh 2
  • Sadigh Raissi 3
1 MA Student, Faculty of TV and Radio Productions, IRIB University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of TV and Radio Productions, IRIB University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Prof., School of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch
چکیده [English]

Risk management is basically an action plan for all projects that can minimize the effects of undesired events as you cannot fully get rid of such risks. All scheduled plans face the risk of unexpected trials, which embeds undesirable consequences. Film and TV productions usually are not executed as production managers, producers or movie planners expect. Many risk-based internal and external factors have the ability to cause minor or major deficiencies in the process of film and TV production both on the target time and their relevant cost. They may extend the runtime of the project or increase the cost of implementing them. Nowadays using empirical science, it is possible to anticipate risks and mitigate them. Risk management involves understanding, analyzing and addressing risks to make sure all activities achieve their objectives. The goal of risk management in a film or TV production project is to follow up on a risky project successfully with a minimum amount of adverse event occurrence before it happens. Regrettably, an investigation has shown that this method is still not considered by local film producers. This article tries to deal with a systematic approach in risk identification, analysis, prioritizing, control and treatment on film production projects. This approach also has the capability to provide mitigation strategies based on practical viewpoints of experts. The current study tends to present a sample risk management pattern just based on the “location” and “crew & equipment” categories. The approach has the capability of extending in other categories such as pre-production, production and post-production phases. The method provides the relevant critical risk factors using the “failure mode and effect analysis; FMEA”. In this context, the risk priority number (RPN) is calculated based on three different aspects. They are probability in occurrence (O) of risk, severity or impact (S) and the capability to detect their occurrence (D). The RPN can then be calculated by multiplication of O, S, and D, each of which is a positive value smaller than 10. Hence, higher RPN refers to the more critical risk and logically should be mitigated to prevent damage initiated by it. Owing to the fact that risk is inherent in everything we do, the type of roles undertaken by its professionals are incredibly diverse. Through a case study, thirty risk factors in the “location” and “crew & equipment” in the shooting-production phase have been identified. The most important are: uncertainty in weather forecasting, equipment failures, crew or actors’ absences, loss of natural light, inability to control the vehicle and blocking the streets. Subsequently, the FMEA is applied to rank them and a multiple criteria decision-making technique based on a simple weighted average method was realized to appraise the appropriate mitigation strategies. Results presented nine critical risk factors such as six ranked mitigation strategies. The most prominent treatment strategies are “considering an alternative shooting program”, “applying check sheets” and “monitoring and controlling day-to-day shooting activities”. It should be noted that results in other projects may vary, due to different film project structure and script requirements.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Film Production
  • Production Manager
  • risk management
  • risk assessment
  • Mitigation Strategy
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