عنوان مقاله [English]
Musicians practice to gain technical proficiency, learn new repertoire, develop musical interpretation, memorize music, and prepare for performances. Achieving high levels of musical expertise requires considerable practice; attainment simply increases with practice and, consequently, the accumulated practice time can directly predict achievement, increase the chance of success and reduce performance anxiety. The amount of practice is important for increasing the academic performance of students in performance program but, the efficiency of practice is vital in this process. Unfortunately, performance students usually don’t receive specific education for increasing practice efficiency and choosing appropriate strategies of practice. This study investigates the correlation between hours of practice and performance anxiety, and academic achievement among Western classical music performance students of University of Art. In this correlational-descriptive study, 102 performance students enrolled in second to eighth semesters were selected in December 2016. The sample includes 46 female and 56 male (mean age = 21.6 years, SD=4) students. They had musical instruction for mean (SD) time of 9.29 (3.9) years. Demographic data were collected via self-reported component questionnaires. Furthermore, validated Osborne-Kenny music performance anxiety inventory questionnaires (15 questions) were used in order to assess the quantity of student’s performance anxiety. Then, the data were supported by validated Spielberg state-trait anxiety inventory (40 questions). Calculated Cronbach’s alpha showed high internal consistency reliability of both inventories (α= 0.9). Finally, academic achievement calculated by overall means of the performance scores in ensemble, instrumental lesson, orchestra and principles of performance in the past semesters. The data were analyzed by SPSS-22 software, using Pearson correlation coefficient, independent t- test and multiple linear regression with significance level 0.05. The results showed, the mean (SD) of student’s performance anxiety scores were assessed 47.8 (15.09) and state and trait anxiety scores were calculated in order 44.07 (14.4) and 43.2 (11.8). The mean (SD) of academic achievement scores was 15.7 (1.9), and students had 20.6 (8.6) hours of practice per week. Among students, 66 persons had daily practice and 36 students did not practice every day. There was no statically significant relationship between amount of practice time and performance anxiety. In addition, the statically significant relationship between weekly hours of practice and state-trait anxiety was not found. Furthermore, statically significant relationship was not found between weekly hours of practice and academic performance. The independent t-test revealed that there were no significant differences between students who have daily practice and other students in academic performance, performance anxiety and state-trait anxiety scores. Multiple linear regression showed the demographic characteristics such as age, gender, years of musical instruction, and hours of practice were not statically significant variables for predicting academic achievement. However, among these variables, years of musical instruction was marginally significant (P=0.06). With a deductive overview, results showed students’ hours of practice were not considerably effective on increasing academic achievement and decreasing performance anxiety. According to the above mentioned, learning strategies for deliberate practice may be beneficial. Hence, adding a course with the purpose of instructing deliberate practice and learning true practice strategies in the curriculum of Western classical music performance was recommended.