تحلیل تقابل سکون / حرکت در سینمای عباس کیارستمی بر مبنای نظریۀ زیبایی‌شناسی سکون لورا مالوی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه پژوهش هنر، دانشکده علوم نظری و مطالعات عالی هنر، دانشگاه هنر تهران، ایران

2 استادیار دانشکده سینما و تئاتر دانشگاه هنر تهران

3 دانشیار گروه پژوهش هنر، دانشگاه هنر تهران

چکیده

لورا مالوی به عنوان منتقد روش سینمای کلاسیک هالیوود در بازنمایی تصویر زن، لحظۀ توقف زمان در فیلم و ثابت شدن تصویر سینمایی را بسیار مهم می‌داند. او در کتاب مرگ ۲۴ بار در ثانیه: سکون و تصویر متحرک به تحلیل حضور همزمان و متناقض سکون و حرکت در سینما می‌پردازد. سینمای عباس‌کیارستمی مطالعۀ موردی مالوی در این زمینه است و از آن به عنوان سینمای عدم قطعیت یاد می‌کند. در این پژوهش به این مسأله پرداخته شده است که مالوی چگونه سینمای کیارستمی را به عنوان سینمای تأخیر و سکون معرفی می‌کند، در حالی که استفاده از نماهایی از اتومبیلِ در‌حال‌حرکت ویژگی سبک‌شناختی سینمای کیارستمی است. روش تحقیق در این پژوهش روش کیفی است و رویکرد اصلی نیز تحلیل روان‌کاوانه بر مبنای نظریات ژاک‌ لاکان است. نقد روانکاوانۀ لاکانی تحلیل روش‌های متجلی شدن امیال ناخودآگاه شخصیت یا نویسنده نیست بلکه تحلیل خود متن و رابطۀ متن باخواننده است. در تحلیل تقابل سکون و حرکت در آثار کیارستمی ، مفاهیم تکرار و بازگشت و تأثیر آنها بر خاطرۀ تماشاگر و همچنین نگاه خیرۀ دوربین بررسی شده‌اند. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که نگاه دوربین کیارستمی در داخل اتومبیل حس اقامت‌گزیدن در حرکت و در نتیجه حضور چندوجهی در فضا و زمان را به بیننده منتقل می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Laura Mulvey’s Still-Moving Dialectic on the Cinema of Abbas Kiarostami*

نویسندگان [English]

  • Akram Jamshidi 1
  • Shahab Esfandiary 2
  • Esmaiiel Bani Ardalan 3
1 Department of Art research, Faculty of Advanced studies of Art, Tehran University of Art, Islamic Republic of Iran
2 Associate Professor of Critical Theory and Film Studies, Tehran University of Art
3 Associate Professor, Department of Art Research, Art University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Laura Mulvey is best known for her essay Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema (1975) that was a significant contribution to Film Theory, Psychoanalysis and Feminism. In the essay, she criticized the role of patriarchy in Hollywood cinema. Mulvey questioned the dominance of Patriarchal gaze in Hollywood Cinema regarding Lacan’s Gaze Theory. She pointed out that the feminine presence in Hollywood movies tends to work in favor of male gaze rather than the flow of the story line. In Death 24 X a second: Stillness and The Moving Image (2006), she moves on from her early essay that focused on the pleasure and relations of power involved in the act of looking, to an interest in the impact of new technologies of spectatorship that allows the viewer to slow down and freeze movement of images. Mulvey states that the conversion of recorded information into a numerical system broke the material connection between the object and image. This connection is the result of the film’s photographic basis and is shared with the medium of photography. Therefore, the relationship between Cinema and Photography comes to the fore. Mulvey confronts the fundamental paradox of cinema that is the emergence of an illusion of movement from the stillness of a series of photographs. This paradox was noted earlier by Jean Epstein as well. But Mulvey presents this paradox through some concepts of psychoanalysis namely Trauma, the Uncanny, and the Real. In addition, she reflects on the dialectic between indexicality in celluloid Cinema and algorithms of digital imaging. Mulvey is the first person to link Abbas Kiarostami’s Cinema to the Lacanian concept of the Real. She explains that Kiarostami’s unrepresented tragic earthquake is the same as the manner of the Real which is invisible, but has a significant presence. She argues that the tragic earthquake which destroyed the village is left intentionally unseen, unrepresented by Kiarostami in the following two films. The lack of any kind of representation leads into a situation where the traumatic event is invisible and unquestionable exactly in the same manner as Lacan describes the order of the Real which is not always accessible to direct experience. In addition, representation of the gaze is considered the result of the style of a filmmaker who is best known as a self-reflexive filmmaker. This article discusses the Cinema of Abbas Kiarostami through a Psychoanalytic perspective based on the contradiction of stillness and movement in Mulvey’s film theory. The main issue to discuss is that how Mulvey considers the cinema of Kiarostami as delaying and immobilizing, while his use of car and consequently movement is a prominent feature of his cinematic style. The result is that Kiarostami’s cars respond to a relational understanding of space in mobility and breaks away from the conventions of representation in which space is considered fixed and consequently carries specific and symbolic meanings. However, the sense of mobility emerged from a wandering car ends up to stillness through repetition and return that affect the spectator’s memory.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Laura Mulvey"
  • "Abbas Kiarostami"
  • "Stillness"
  • "movement"
  • "Gaze"
  • "Lacan"
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Mulvey, L (1975), Visual pleasure and Narrative Cinema, Screen, 16(4), 6-18, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-19798-9_3.
Mulvey, L (2006), Death 24X a Second: Stillness and the Moving Image, ReaKtion, London.
Walsh, Maria (2006), Against Fetishism: The Moving Quiescence of Life 24 Frames a Second, Film Philosophy, 10(2), 1-10,  http://www.film-philosophy.com/2006v10n2/walsh.pdf.