نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
This study recognizes the spatial and locational characteristics of Iranian performance art in the traditional Persian paintings (miniature) in the pre-modern Islamic era. In the history of Iranian performance art, there are limited documents to recognize the characteristics of space and place. However, Iranian culture has many potentials to preserve performance arts. The most important way to reach these potentials is dramaturgy. In Iranian tradition, the principles and main elements of any cultural fields that are subject to restraint could be preserved in other areas. Accordingly, traditional Persian paintings were selected as the sources which possibly contain some features of the Iranian performance arts. Herein, the efforts of painters to create a composition from the elements of performance art in a picture are dramaturgy. Therefore, Persian paintings contain valuable information to analyze the Iranian performance art. Moreover, these paintings have been traditionally drawn to illustrate the Iranian literary, mystical and scientific books. One of these famous painters is Behzād, who had a chance to deal with theoretical aspects of various subjects such as theater. Therefore, there is a possibility that the theoretical aspects of performance art have been considered in his paintings. It is in contrast with the opinion that Iranian performance art has been preserved by non-educational persons who did not know the theoretical aspects of theater. These paintings could be also resources of the Iranian urban mindscape to recognize places for setting up a traditional theater. A mindscape is a general picture of a place and mental factors including cultural, historical, and memorial events. Herein, the main objectives are to find the relationship between the paintings' subject matter and types of Iranian dramaturgical subjects as well as the features of stage and space to illustrate these subjects. To this aim, the selected paintings have dramatic themes and suitable locations for performance art. Results have revealed that most subject matters of these paintings contain Iranian dramaturgical subjects such as Siavash Pass on Fire. Besides, some paintings contain more information about the performance art locations and mindscapes than associated books. For example, more details of a real location for dramaturgical events, like Behistun as a traditional mindscape, have been painted. The paintings illustrate various stages like proscenium, round, thrust, makeshift, traverse stages, which have been performed permanently or temporarily in coffeehouses, private houses and historical venues such as ancient caravanserais and cultural landscapes. Moreover, to a better illustration of a site for theater set up or a gathering place for performance art, different compositions of symbols, colors, forms, and figures have been used. Different types of Iranian performance arts in these paintings are Ta'zieh (passion play), traditional puppetry, Ru-Howzi (social theater) Naqqāli (narration) Siah-Bazi (comical acts on politics) Saye-Bazi (Shadow plays), Pardeh-Khaani (screen-based storytelling). Even though these paintings do not illustrate a real performance art, they reflect a performative manner and dramaturgical process in Iranian culture. It should be noted that this research is performed based on historical research methodology and reflection approach in the sociology of art.