عنوان مقاله [English]
The subject of this article is to study "Shadd" in the triple specimen presented in the works of Abdulqâdir Maraghi and his son Abdulaziz that is Ruh, Sabâ and Khâb in the late Timurid era and a brief description of its continuation under the title Quadruple Sudud in Safavid era. Shadd had different meanings and this term refers to the following structural distances: the twelve main modes(Advâr), interval of perfect forth (Zul-erba) and tuning (Estekhâb/Kuk: tune). This term is mentioned in the works of Abdulqâdir and Abdulaziz in the third meaning of it. The basis for the description of Estekhâb was based on the most important instrument of the era that was Ud. These tunes have been the main Modes (Six Avâz, twelve Adwâr, and twenty four Shuba), or Advar of Iqâ (probably Movasel) on the genre of Tarjiât. The aim of the formation of these species is to influence the audience, such as: grief, joy, sadness etc. The structure of this paper is based on three main themes: the motivation of formation of Sudud, the structure of triple Sudud and their continuity in the Safavid era. The purpose of this research is to study the sudud which has been affected in the formation of Safavid quadruple, Sudud, and finally the formation of Dastgâhi system. Although Safavid quadruple and Sudud and the structure of the Dastgâhi system have been studied in the recent decades, this topic has not been seriously considered, so the importance of this review is inevitable. The sources of this research are often based on printed treatises and more emphasis on the manuscripts of the Timurid and Safavid periods, or related to the Safavid era. The method used in this research is descriptive - content analysis. One of the most important findings of this research is the following: the perception of the time from the influence of the era of Advar-e Nahmaghi and Advar-e iqayi as Abdulqâdir and Abdulaziz as a reflection of the ethnic thoughts of the era; a subject that can also be followed in the works of the "Systematist School". In this effect, the executive behavior of musicians, and the behavior of the audience, along with the temporal and spatial conditions have been necessary. The effect of the aforementioned subject is not limited to this number, indicating that this system is open in this process, for chordophones especially for Ud (base instrument). Scales have been used in different tonalities (of seventeen tonalities). The tunes of these Sudud were unregulated non-tetrachords or regular tetrachords. Hossieni Shadd had five tones, among these five: the first, third and fifth tones were in the middle part of tones and the second and fourth were in the bass tones of those thirty-six tones. It can be inferred from the contents of the treatises of Safavid era, that at least there has been a nominal relationship, especially in relation to the Ruh, and probably the triple Sudud effect of the quadruple Sudud.