نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 کارشناسی ارشد رشته ی نوازندگی موسیقی ایرانی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران
2 استادیار گروه موسیقی، دانشکدة هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
"TOMBAK'' is the most important percussive instrument in classical music of Iran. This instrument is also known as: tonbak, tompak, donbak and dombak. About the physical structure of this instrument it worth is mentioning that two types of materials are common for the construction of the body: wood and metal, which the wooden type of the Tombak is customary in classical music and the metal type is more usual to use in folk music. The upper part of the instrument is covered up with animal’s skin such as cow or camel. The performance of the Tombak involves both hands playing the same role and complementing each other’s motions. Although it is common to use the cutaneous part of the instrument as the main source of getting sounds, the wooden part is also use for getting different timbre of sounds. Influential cultures which have influenced the new generations of playing Tombak (from the rhythmic aspects) are the rhythmic system of Indian, Arabian and Turkish classical music. The main problem facing Tombak players which causes failure to achieve desired result, is the lack of a coherent system in Rhythmic-Metric structures which according to the non-metric structure of this music, is not unexpected. Based on experiences and their perceptions, in comparison with other instruments, Tombak players usually play the role of a companion. The wide range of technical changes in Tombak has increased the importance of its quality and role in being a companion than before. The procedure of this changes from the Qajar period up to now can be analyzed in notation and also its (Tombak) repertory which are mentioned in samples. In order to achieve good and measurable results as in other branches of science, we can use successful experiences in this field (which emerged in every way) and after reviewing the data, a progressive result can solve these problems. The researches in this paper is descriptive. The original information and research data are obtained by the author through audio transcription and auditory audio from available works. The statistical society in this research include all the audio works companioned by Tombak in the classical music of Iran. Sampling is non-random and selective. In selecting pieces the author also used his personal experiences. A list of all those who have had significant on the style of playing Tombak and accompaniment, was provide and their works have been reviewed. Artists who have been examined, explained as fallow whom are separated by their style of playing: Hossein Tehrani, Mohammad Esmaeili – Naser Farhang Far, Jamshid Mohebi –Amir naser Eftetah, Bahman Rajabi – Jamshid Shemirani – Arzhang Kamkar – Pezhman Haddadi – Navid Afghah. The final results of the article are included as suggested rhythm and Tombak in the Tombak’s accompaniment with other Iranian instruments, in the field of timing and form (shape) of the Tombak entrance at the beginning of the pieces, the figures, the rhythmic figure of tombak executive and other instruments, the techniques used by tombak, the bases of improvisation or not, the quantitative and qualitative of rhythm, the presence and role of borrowing divisions, Tombak rhythm line ratio with melody will happen in the final section and tempo.