عنوان مقاله [English]
Improvisation is a performance in the “moment” and without previous prediction which at least in the last century was the dominant form of Iranian classical music. However, existence of multiple versions and definitions of improvisation rob the opportunity of conceptualizing the scientific method. Thus, this study aims to reach a uniform definition of the concept. This study is based on the theories of the Austrian philosopher Edmund Husserl's transcendental phenomenology. This notion, as a research methodology, provides the steps in improvisation from start to finish leading to the creation of a musical work in details. In this study, the role of improvisation as a creator has the utmost importance, actually, the understanding of improvisation becomes possible on the basis of “Understanding of the Improviser’s Life and World ". The findings of this study renders the "Radif" as the model of Iran's traditional classical music so as to improvisation is taken into consideration on the Radif. The aforementioned issues can be summarized in “what is improvisation?”, or in other words, how can a comprehensive definition of improvisation be reached based on a methodology? For this purpose, the traditionalism’s belief (meticulous performing of Radif) as an approach referred to as natural approach in phenomenology is taken into consideration. Then, with the help of a suspension of this approach, it paved the way for the implementation of other phases of phenomenology with improvisation. Reaching to the essence of the given phenomenon (Radif) in the process of Eidetic reduction, summons our attention to the elements such as constituent’s intervals, melodic and rhythmic patterns in circulation of "Radif" that through them the essence or nature of a Goosheh is revealed. Then, the improviser was subjected to the phenomenological reduction and all meaning and validity of previously learned subject were taken away from him. This process provided a situation that improviser encounters the essence of the Radif in a pure sense, without any presupposition. The phenomenon appears to subject in two ways: a) something that is outside of our consciousness and is objective and b) something that shapes in our mind and consciousness. Thus, "eidetic reduction" phenomenon is rendered outside of the mind which leads us to its essence of nature. The consciousness of the subject is exposed to "phenomenological reduction", and is cleared of the assumptions and judgments. The final phase, in which subject and object are linked together, is an encounter between an effortless mastery of improvisation, free from any supposition, with a phenomenon known as Radif. It is in this encounter that horizons, due to the expansion and development process, is revealed to the improviser and each horizon is followed by a new horizon. In fact, the expansion and development is a platform for demonstrating creativity which increases the possibilities of the improviser and assist him in exploring new possibilities as well. As a result, the implementation of improvisation with concepts like: epoche, reduction, intentionality and other such elements provide a basis to explore the improvisation methodologically. This study is a qualitative method and has been conducted on library resources.