ژرفای موسیقایی باله پرستش بهار نسخه ۱۹۴۷ اثر ایگور استراوینسکی با تاکید بر عنصر ریتم درشماره تمرینی ۱ تا ۵۵

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

رهبر ارکستر سمفونیک سازمان صدا و سیمای جمهوری اسلامی ایران

چکیده

در مقاله حاضر عنصر ریتم و برخی ظرایف اجرایی باله پرستش بهار مورد تحلیل و بررسی قرار گرفته است. این بررسی با مطالعه تطبیقی رسالات و کتب مربوطه و پارتیتور اثر و نیز با استفاده از تجربیات چندین ساله نگارنده در زمینه رهبری ارکستر، خصوصاً تجربه تمرینات این قطعه با ارکسترهای مختلف انجام پذیرفته است. تمرکز اصلی این مقاله بر یافتن عوامل موثر در پیچیدگی‌های ریتمیک این باله با استناد به شواهد موجود است و در این راستا پارتیتور اثر به عنوان نزدیک‌ترین منبع به ذهن آهنگساز مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است. به منظور درک عمیق‌تر ریتم در کنار تحلیل و بررسی موردی عنصر یاد شده در بخش‌هایی از این اثر، بطور ضمنی به برخی ابعاد شخصیتی و هنری استراوینسکی بعنوان آهنگساز- که بر نگاه وی به عنصر ریتم موثر است - پرداخته و به صورت دقیق‌تر تاثیر آن در باله پرستش بهار نسخه ۱۹۴۷ مورد بررسی قرار می‌گیرد. در این مقاله سعی شده تا تصویری قابل درک از نحوه برخورد با محتوای اثر از زاویه‌ای معین ارائه گردد و با توجه به پیچیدگی‌های فراوان اثر نکات مطرح شده در این راستا تنها بخش بسیار کوچکی از مطالعه پارتیتور را شامل می‌شود که برای نزدیک شدن به اجرایی صحیح از این باله ضروری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Rhythmic analysis on Igor Stravinsky`s The Rite of Spring revised 1947, Rehearsal Numbers 1 to 55

نویسنده [English]

  • Sohrab Kashef
Chef conductor of IRIB Symphony Orchestra
چکیده [English]

Igor Stravinsky, one of the most influential Russian composer of 20th century, is known for his revolutionary pieces that influenced the music of his time thereafter. His vast compositions from pieces for small ensemble to Opera and Ballets for large orchestras have opened new dimensions in orchestral music and introduced a new era of musical sounds to the world of music. His three Ballets including “Petrushka”, “Sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring)” and “Firebird” form an important part of repertoire of today’s professional Orchestras; these ageless ballets have been gaining increasing attention since their birth. Sacre du printemps is a masterpiece known for its complex nature that offers challenges to musicians. The sophisticated graphic of this ballet is perceived to be a challenge to understand immediately upon studying the score. In contrast to the complex nature, The Rite of Spring is structured based on a strong logic that if understood, will mitigate the challenge of understanding the music. The logical Rhythmic structure of The Rite of Spring in relation to its complexity is the authors’ motivation for dedicating the rest of this article to a brief analysis of The rhythm in the Rite of Spring ballet.
Complex polyrhythms and difficult rhythmic figures used in this ballet make us ask “Why did Stravinsky choose such difficult rhythmic patterns and polyrhythms to compose this work?”, “What did he want to express during this rhythmic patterns?”, “As performers, how can we understand his music and achieve his intended sound through the written notes?”, “What is the relationship between his personality and his way of combining Rhythmic patterns in such an orderly form?”.

In order to find answers to these questions, some dimensions of Stravinsky`s life and character will be mentioned followed by an rhythmic analysis of rehearsal numbers 1 to 55. We will then be able to find the connection between the complex nature and logical rhythmic structure of this ballet.

A comparative review of the classic treatises, a thorough survey of the writings of contemporary authors on music, the life of Igor Stravinsky, and a special focus on the full score of The Rite of Spring, as well as personal experiences as a conductor; has guided the author to introduce a simplified method for understanding background of Stravinsky’s work and the complex Rhythm of Sacre du printemps to get a deeper interpretation of the Stravinsky’s music.

The author strongly believes that studying the score and learning the written notes are not enough to perform The Rite of Spring in the way intended by Stravinsky. Discovering and understanding Stravinsky’s thought that motivated him to compose such a revolutionary piece is a crucial factor that leads to a successful performance. Unfolding this unwritten part of the music is the most adventurous part of the journey that musicians go through to perform The Rite of Spring. Learning about the life and personality of the composer is an important part of studying the score which leads us to a more accurate interpretation of Stravinsky’s music.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Igor Stravinsky
  • The Rite of Spring
  • Full score
  • Rhythm
استراوینسکی، ایگور (۱۹۷۵)، زندگی من، ترجمه کیکاووس جهانداری، انتشارات خوارزمی، تهران.
ناصری، فریدون (۱۳۷۹)، تاریخ موسیقی روس، پژوهنده، تهران.
Adorno, Theodor W (2003), Philosophy of Modern Music, Continuum, London and New York.
Hill, Peter (2000), Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Loeffler, Peter (1994), Die Geschichte vom Soldaten: L’Histoire du Soldat, Springer, Basel AG.
Stravinsky, Igor (1997), Le Sacre du Printemps Full orchestral score (Revised 1947), Boosey & Hawkes Music Publishers Ltd, London, UK.
Woitas,Monika (2010), Strawinsky Transformation des Urbanen, ACT zeitschrift für music & performance, (Bochum/München), Ausgabe 2010/1, P. 5.