ساختار طبیعی چوب قَمیش و تأثیرش بر نوازندگی سازهای بادی-چوبیِ زبانه‌دار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

مدرس پردیس هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی، گروه موسیقی

چکیده

یکی از بزرگ‌ترین دغدغههای نوازندگان سازهای بادی-چوبیِ زبانهدار، در اختیار داشتن قمیشی مناسب برای تولید صدایی زیبا است. کیفیت چوب قمیش تأثیر به‌سزایی بر کوک، تمبر و آسان شدن نوازندگی دارد. نوازندگان این سازها به دلیل ناهمگونی کیفیت چوب قمیش در فرآیند تراش و همچنین تغییرات ناگهانی و کیفیت ناپایدار آن با مشکلاتی روبرو هستند. در این پژوهش به بیان مشکلات استفاده از گیاه آروندو‌دوناکس برای ساخت قمیش این سازها و همچنین به بررسی و تحلیل دلایل بروز این مشکلات با تکیه بر مطالعات نظری و آزمایشگاهیِ انجام گرفته بر عملکرد قمیش پرداخته می‌شود. با توجه به ساختار فیبری و ضعیف چوب نی و همچنین غفلت از مطالعات آزمایشگاهی به منظور بررسی آمادگی آن برای برداشت، تشخیص ظرفیت چوب در تبدیل شدن به قمیشی کارآمد یا ناکارآمد را فرآیندی دشوار، زمان‌بر و پرهزینه می‌سازد. از طرف دیگر بررسی جایگزینی گیاه آروندو‌دوناکس با ماده‌ای طبیعی و یا سنتتیک نیز تاکنون بی نتیجه مانده است. ازآنجاکه در ایران اهمیت فن قمیش‌تراشی و ارتباط مستقیم آن با شرایط نوازندگی در کلاس‏های آموزش تخصصی این‌گونه سازها در نظر گرفته نمی‏شود و تربیت نوازندگان بدون در نظر گرفتن اهمیت کیفیت قمیش در اصلاح مهارت‏های نوازندگی صورت می‏گیرد، این نوشتار اولین قدم در طرح اهمیت مهارت قمیش‌تراشی در آموزش حرفه‏ای سازهای بادی-چوبیِ زبانه‌دار به‏ویژه دوزبانه‌ای است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Natural structure of reed cane and its effects on performance of woodwind reed instruments

نویسنده [English]

  • Yasaman Kimiavi
Tutor at institute of music and dramatic art
چکیده [English]

Pleasant, tuneful and moving sound is the principal element in playing a musical instrument. One of the major concerns facing musicians of woodwind reed instruments all over the world is having the right reed in order to produce sweet-sounding and appropriate music. The quality of reed cane material has significant impact on tune, timbre and difficulty of performance. Air current in reeds made from inferior quality canes is disturbed and thus negatively affects the most fundamental principles of musical performance such as tune, balance of different registers, creating various dynamics and maintaining diverse articulations. Musicians of woodwind reed instruments are often frustrated because of sudden changes in their reeds and their unstable condition. These changes generally occur due to subtle fluctuations in weather, temperature and humidity as a result of the organic nature of the cane. Various efforts and researches have been made in order to overcome the deficiencies and weaknesses of this natural material and substituting it with synthetic alternatives; however due to obvious differences in timbre and sound quality of synthetic and natural reeds, musicians insist on using the latter. Then again, diverse physical conditions of the performers and numerous methods of reed making, force many musicians and in particular performers of double-reed woodwind instruments, to make their own reeds. These musicians face several issues in the process of reed making such as the whole process being time-consuming and laborious, brittleness of the reed, expensiveness, instability of the natural material and inconsistency of the reed quality coming from various canes. Contrary to popular belief between musicians, inefficient and defective reeds are not usually the outcome of flawed reed making process or incompetency of the reed maker, but it is the inhomogeneous structure and divergent quality of the canes which lead to such deficiencies. One of the main reasons for inconsistencies in reed cane quality is neglecting the microscopic inspection of the fiber bands of Arundo donax plant at the time of harvest and solely relying on particular height of the plant. Cane species have different structure and growth rate based on their genetic formation, received sunlight and mineral compounds present in the soil. Therefore two different cane plants may be at different internal growth stages and maturity while having the same height. Fatigue phenomenon of the reed which occurs in reed’s motion cycle due to Bernoulli's principle is another major reason for flaws of this natural substance in making reed for woodwind instruments. This fact forces the reed under constant stress and results in minuscule and subsequently larger cracks in the reed body over time. The significance of reed making and the direct connection of this process with performance conditions are neglected in current educational programs of wood wind instruments in Iran and musicians are trained without considering reed quality effects on improving performance skills. This paper is the first attempt towards pointing out the significance of reed making in professional instruction of double reed wood wind instruments and the difficulties of using Arundo donax plant in the reed making process.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arundo donax
  • Reed
  • Cane
  • Woodwind instruments
Blais, Zachary Everett (2010), An Overview of the Rise of Arundo donax in Oboe Reeds, Retrieved fromhttps://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-011911-112924/unrestricted/ FINAL_IQP_REPORT.pdf.

Blais, Zachary Everett (2011), Measurement and Deterioration of the Oboe Reed’s Sound Quality Over its Lifespan, Retrieved fromhttps://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-011911-112924/unrestricted/FINAL_IQP_REPORT.pdf.

Blasco-Yepes, C & Payri, B (2010),The Influence of Reed Making on the Performance and Sound Quality of the Oboe, Retrieved from http://smcnetwork.org/files/proceedings/2010/5.pdf.

Burgess, G & Haynes, B (2004), The Oboe, Yale University Press, New Haven and London.

Dalmont et al. (1995), some aspects of tuning and clean intonation in reed instruments, Applied acoustics. 46(1), 19-60. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article /pii/ 0003682X9593950M.

Ditamoso, Joseph M (2013), Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States, University of California Weed Research and Information Center, California.

Frost, Eberhard (n.d.), Das Blatt: Ein sensibler Schwingungserzeuger, [Web log post].Retrieved from http://www.the-clarinets.net/english/clarinet-reed.html.

Gjebic, Julia (2013), A Study of Oboe Reeds, Student Summer Scholars,Paper 112. Retrieved from http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/sss/112.

Glave et al. (1999), Quality indicators for woodwind reed material, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 150(1-4), 673-678, Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X98010258.

Milar, Kendall (2008), Fast Fourier Transform Analysis of Oboes, Oboe Reeds and Oboists: What Matters Most to Timbre? Mount Holyoke College, Physics Department.

Odero et al. (2015), Giant Reed (Arundo donax): Biology, Identification, and Management, Retrieved from https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag307.

O’Hara, Seán (n.d.), Arundo Donax, Retrieved from http://www.gimcw.org/plants.

Rojas-Sandova, J & Acevedo-Rodriguez, P (2014), Arundo donax (giant reed), Retrieved from http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/1940.