عنوان مقاله [English]
The technology of film editing had been one of the effective parameters on film editing aesthetics through the editing history. Explanation of historical film editing technologies developments and its effects on technical structures of editing is the main objective of this article. Non-linear digital film editing technology is selected as an approach for above explanation, also as one of the historical turning point in developments of editing technology.
Through the explanation of objective by combination of documental and library research , at first the article divides the history of film technologies into five periods which have created five turning points in the developments of film aesthetics and film form: Invention of cinematograph in 1895.Invention of sound recording technology for films in 1927.Invention of color film at beginning of 1940s.Invention of wide screen systems in 1950s.Invention of digital technologies for film production at the beginning of 1990s.Then article divides film /video editing technologies into five periods:1. Pre-mechanical period (1895-1925): handy film cutting/editing (by using scissors, emery, film glue and metal clips).2. Mechanical period (1925 -1965): from invention of first electromechanical editing machine (Moviola) as first historical turning point in developments of film editing technologies to invention of EUC (Editing Unit Control) machine in television. This period begins from last years of silent movies era until the last years of 1960s, when compact cassettes of video tape and EUC invented for video tape linear editing.3. Linear video editing period (1970 -1985): by using electromagnetic editing and tape recording machines.
4. Non - linear/electronic period of film - video editing (1985 -1995): by invention of "Edit Droid" and "Montage" editing systems ("transitional period" from analogue to digital technology of editing).5. Digital film editing period ( from the mid of 1990s) by invention of "Avid" and "Light Works" editing systems as the second historical turning point in the developments of film editing technologies (beginning of digital non - linear film/video editing era).
Through study in these periods and finally by approach to digital film editing, the article discusses and analyzes the subject in below domains:
1. By introducing the main parameters that had the most effects on film editing aesthetics through history of editing, including editing technology parameter.
2. By introducing and analyzing the editing aesthetics structures and their elements which editing technology affected them. 3. By comparing a certain group of Hollywood feature/fiction films through "transitional period" from analogue to digital editing technology, in view point of editing structures. Finally the article comes to this conclusion: Film editing technology developments - as one of the effective parameters - had a series of effects on the editing aesthetics in certain periods of film editing history. These effects are obvious in the editing structures of some Hollywood fiction films which edited by digital technology through "transitional period", when comparing them with films that edited by analogue technology in same period.
Film Editing - Film Editing Aesthetics - Film Editing Technology - Editing Structures - Digital Editing