عنوان مقاله [English]
The audience has always played a particular role in the history of theater, and the quality of interaction between the audience and the performance has determined the success or failure of the work of art. One of the most fundamental elements of theater, is the audience that attends the performance and contributes to the reshaping of its destiny. Each performance inescapably has gaps in the presentation of its pictures and concepts. In the end, it becomes the spectator who has the duty of completing the performance in his/her mind andbelieve in them. Focusing on the delicate interaction between the performance and the audience’s reception has vital significance. If the audience fails to comprehend even a small and insignificant part of the performance, this interaction will be a failure as well. Since the ages of Plato and Aristotle until the present century, the whole attention of theorists and critics has exclusively been directed towards the artist. Nevertheless, starting from this century, they started to concentrate on the audience and to pay a closer attention to the audience’s role in the performance. Since then, theorists have begun to draw some cycles in which there was no longer a passive audience, and incidental activities of perceiving and understanding the work of art, have completed the artist's work. One of the major expressions of this attention, has been the phenomenological theory of Edmund Husserl. Phenomenology seeks to achieve the true essence of phenomena through themselves. This key sentence is the beginning of our research ahead. Husserl removes the surface layers of phenomena, within a method that is known as the “archaeological method”, in order to reach more profound levels of understanding in their inner expression, and this is what the theater aims to do: Going into the depths of what the audience will perceive from a dramatic performance. The theater intends to take its audience into the deepest layers of meaning. For this purpose, it uses any possible means, such as actors, puppets, or even objects. The ultimate purpose of this research is to investigate the audience's perception of “Puppet Theater”. However, this result will be obtained by making a comparison between the “puppets” and the “theater actors”. We will use Edmund Husserl’s method, known in the literature as the reduction of phenomena, and the removal of prejudices towards them. Findings will convert the puppet from a lifeless object into an actor, and consequently into a credible character. This conversion has a direct impact upon the perception of audience and it makes the audience’s mind fill the gaps, which are encountered during the performance. These gaps are much wider in the puppet theater than in the ordinary theater with actors, and the audience obviously has to act more in it. The reason for this difference is that the puppet as a theatrical phenomenon, has to bring together a wider gap than the actor in order to be perceived by the audience as a theatrical character.