نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 کارشناسارشدِ نوازندگی موسیقی ایرانی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران
2 استادیار گروه موسیقی، دانشکدة هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
in some recent musical theory, “mode” is distinguished not only by intervallic structure and its position on the general scale, but also by its specific progression. Modes with identical intervallic structure and positions on the general scale, may be distinguished on the basis of melodic progressions. Seyir or melodic progression is an outline, in which the melody must travel along a rather specific path. Ideally, a Seyir should present a widely acceptable guide to the progression of a chosen mode, making it different from one another. The progression of a mode shows the relationship between specific tonal centers. In fact, the Seyir is marked by points of these tones. The relative position of these tones shows the melodic direction of the progression. Also a detailed skeletal exposition of the progression is given in the Seyir. The tonal centers in Persian Classical Music include: Shâhed, Final, Stop and Motaghayyer (variable tone). The Shâhed tone is the center, around which the melody evolves, rest note is a tone on which the melodic segments comes to rest, and Motaghayyer (variable tone) is susceptible to alteration during the course of the Gushe. These tones are comparatively inactive, of course less active than the Shâhed. In the Persian modal system, unlike some other modal systems such as Makam, melodic progression is often closely tied to a specific melody; however melodic progression is an important concept in the creation of the Gushe (the smaller modal unit which constitutes the substance of the Persian modal system); but it never exhibits separately. For this purpose, in this article, according to the 10 transcriptions of one mode of Persian classical music, we try to draw out the dominate Seyir of the melody. These transcriptions are selected from the Darâmad-e Avâz-e bayâte- Esfâhân (The Âvâz is traditionally regarded as a derivative Dastgâh with fewer Gushes and the performance of a Dastgāh or Avaz usually begins with one or more sections called Darāmad), from Radifs of Mirzâ Abodllâh, Mousâ Ma’rofi, Mirzâ Hossein-Gholi, Abollâh Davami, Abolhassan Eqbâl Âzar, Abolhassan Sabâ, Gholâmhossein Banân, Hassan Kasâee, Jalil Shahnâz, and Mohammad Reza Lotfi. At first we will determine the sentences of the transcriptions and then draw the graphs of melodic progression for each of them. In fact, these graphs indicate the basic route of the melody. Similarities which is understood from comparison of these graphs lead us to choose a path for Darâmad-e Avâz-e bayâte- Esfâhân. Based on these graphs, we can see the Darâmad-e Avâz-e bayâte- Esfâhân always begins with activating the Shâhed tone, then often it has a descending movement that goes to the stop tone, and then go back to the Shâhed. In the following melody, usually involves the upper tones of the Shâhed. These similar paths can be divided in two groups that are identified as the beginning and the ending paths. The complexity of these paths makes the melodic progression (Seyir) of Darâmad-e Avâz-e bayâte- Esfâhân.