نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشیار دانشکده هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران
2 کارشناس ارشد نوازندگی موسیقی جهانی، دانشکده هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The French School of Flute playing which was propagated through the leadership of the Paris Conservatoire in the 1890s has been considered as the foundation of flute performance and pedagogy in the modern world. Despite the prolific output of the teacher's of the Paris Conservatoire who widely wrote daily exercise books and studies for their students, a very limited number of these books concentrate on techniques of tone production and sonority and a wide majority consider only the development of dexterity and finger technique as their focus. While acknowledging the importance of finger technique in flute performance, it is common knowledge today, that a lack of consideration of issues related to sound and tonalization can hinder the development of the modern flutist. More importantly, in countries where the western classical tradition of sound is not directly embedded in the aural concepts of that culture, a lack of attention toward the importance of sound quality and tone color can become detrimental in achieving the expressive elements of musical performance. Using library references, as well as applied studies and empirical research, this study has reviewed the important role that Paul Taffanel and Marcel Moyse have played in propagating the aesthetics of sound in flute performance. While reviewing the principles discussed by the two teachers in their memoires as well as the introduction to their method books, the article has reviewed the social trends that led to the development of their thoughts and principles. As a result, particular exercises from different method books for the flute have been selected in order to present instructions and guidelines that enhance the pedagogy of tone and sound production based on the ideals propagated by the two teachers. The article has specifically addressed common terminology used by French teachers in their method books in order to postulate the significance of the words that have been used to describe the quality of sound as desired by the teachers of the Paris Conservatoire. As a result, the article has attributed three major characteristics to the French style of flute playing, namely "homogeneite, egalite, and souplesse", all three of which cover the concept of sound in an integrated multifaceted continuum. Homogeneite refers to the internal qualities of each tone affected by intonation and harmonics, egalite considers the uniformity of sound between notes and neighboring relationships and, souplesse considers the dynamic fluidity of sound in musical inflection. The article further presents suggestions that instigate appropriate instruction toward the realization of these concepts in the given exercises. While introducing parameters that would help flutists produce a more focused and well projected sound crucial for the expressive interpretation of music, it also motivates flute players to discover aspects of musicianship that lead to better intonation, artful blending of sound and better control and stamina in performance. Moreover, it helps flutists have particular objectives in mind while producing tone and sonorities to enhance expressive elements in the interpretation of a given piece.