عنوان مقاله [English]
Niklas Luhmann has introduced art as a social system, a kind of communication and a process of observation. Using his famous systems approach for clarifying the functions of the art system, he further studied the conceptually complex communications among observation, distinction and form in the system of art. Trying to determine the function of observation in the process of production and perception of art, Luhmann analyzed the function of three active observers in art, namely system of art, artist and audience. Since distinction is what makes the form possible, it is the necessary condition for any observation. Therefore, observation is possible only as long as there is a distinction. But since it is impossible to observe this distinction per se, we come to observe the only side that is present to us and hence fail to see the absent side. This absence is the necessary condition for any observation. In traditional art and criticism, this absence was not considered as important. But avant-garde art concentrated on it to further strengthen the human vision and widen the eyesight to the forms and invisible aspects of the world. For instance, when we want to observe a beautiful thing, the ugliness must be absent. It is important to distinguish between fictional and real aspect of things in art, because this distinction makes a recognizable form. This led him to focus on distinctions and offer a completely new definition of form in the realm of art. Accordingly, he does not consider form as the opposite of content, because form and content can be the same. Avant-garde art very well exemplifies this type of observation which is called second-order observation or the observation of observations. Form is absent in some of the works in modern art, for example, the empty exhibitions or John Cage’s work of 4'33". In some works, form is repeated, as we find examples among others in some of the works of Andy Warhol. Luhamnn wanted to know why these works are regarded as art and found the answer in their participation in second-order observation. According to Luhmann, the common feature of avant-garde artworks is the observation. In addition, the observation of artist and audience is directed by the art system, like camera movements that guide the viewer’s eyes. Art, as an aesthetic play of forms, manages observations and makes novel formal combinations in modern art, and this is in turn the result of the observations of system of art. This theory reduces both the issue of luck and chance and the function of the name of artists as a kind of brand in the acceptance of the artwork. Thus, an artwork, regardless of type or genre, is a kind of observation. This observation is realized by a communication with other artworks and styles in the history of art. The history of art is the memory of this system. Undoubtedly, these communications are indicated in literary criticism and philosophy under the title of intertextuality. Therefore, a work of art is the field of observational encounters and communications. If there’s no communication, no artwork whatsoever will be there. As a result, the second-order observation expands the realm of art and provides people with new aesthetic and artistic experiences.