عنوان مقاله [English]
Wlodzimierz Staniewski is one of the best-known theatre directors of three recent decades. From 1976, as the founder and artistic director of the Gardzienice theatre group, he gained various achievements in the procedure of production and performing of theatre. During more than 35 years of working, these achievements have been source of influence for many experimental groups and theorists of the theatre world. Many critics and theorists of the theatre world believe that one of the main causes of unique achievements in Gardzienice theatre was rooted in the theoretical foundations used by Staniewski, which were the base of production of Gardzienice performances. Understanding the above-mentioned fundamentals can contribute in two dimensions; first it can explain the reasons of the attraction and influence of Staniewski’s work, and secondly it can help theatre groups that are attempting to perform based on this method, yet don’t have sufficient theoretical sources. The authors believe that studying the procedure of production and performing of theatre by Gardzienice leads to observation of the ideas and opinions of Micheal Bakhtin. Therefore the present research tries to study the procedure of production and performing of theatre by Gardzienice deep enough in order to clarify the role of Bakhtin ideas and opinions. The main focus of the present study is on the first work period of Gardzienice Company, which is from the foundation of the company until “Metamorphosis” performance of the group. All the resources used in the study are related to the same work period. The research is descriptive-analytical and uses library Sources, and the main results include: explaining the direct relation between primary ideas of expedition/gathering in Staniewski theatre and the “Carnival theory” of Bakhtin, explaining the roots and influences of expedition/gathering in Staniewski theatre by using Bakhtin theories about "dialogism", "philosophy of the act" and "otherness"; and finding the bases of Staniewski theatre practices utilizing Bakhtin theories about “dialogism”, “philosophy of the act” and “otherness”. According to the results of the present research, some activities of the Gardzienice Theater Company are directly influenced by Bakhtin ideas, and other activities can be explained based on Bakhtin theories and ideas. The main results of the present article can be categorized as followed: ●The initial ideas of expedition/gathering are directly influenced by Bakhtin’s ideas regarding “Carnival”. ● The roots of expedition/gathering can be found in Bakhtin theories of “dialogism” and “philosophy of act”. ●In addition to what mentioned above, Gardzienice special theater practices can be explained by “dialogism”, “ philosophy of act”, and “otherness”. In rare cases, Staniewski referred to Bakhtin’s theories and ideas in his writings or sayings – for instance he mentioned the relation between “carnival theory” and the gatherings’ structures. Yet, beyond these direct inconspicuous documents, authors believe that Bakhtin’s phenomenological system can explain Gardzienice activities in a very solid way -activities such as passionate performances, expeditions to marginal cultures and gatherings as natural meetings. The above results help groups and individuals that are interested in Staniewski works to understand the theoretical bases of Gardzienice works, rather than mere imitation of its form.