نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 کارشناس ارشد آهنگسازی، دانشکده هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران
2 کارشناس ارشد آهنگسازی، دانشکده موسیقی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Serenade op. 24 from Arnold Schoenberg has been written in 7 movements for 7- person ensemble between 1921-1923 including Clarinet and Bass Clarinet (woodwinds), Mandolin, Guitar, Violin, Alto and Cello(stringed instrument). Movements of this work have some been arranged symmetrically by composer. The 4th movement of this collection named sonnet has features such as singer accompanied with orchestra, usage of Francesco Petrarch’s, great poet of renaissance, poet collection, usage of 12-note system, and 12-note retrograde system for singer.(who is in contrast with orchestra from the beginning) The purpose of writing this essay is recognizing effective factors on birth of Dodecaphonic in 4th movement of this collection and regarding the process of composer’s changing in life and career, that ends in changing the music system before and beginning of modernization in music by all means. Critics named this school (Second Vein School) after the first school with attendance Hayden, Mozart, Beethoven. In this analysis authors try to understand complex thoughts of the composer and unveil hidden aspects of the work in order to enable readers to comprehend some charts of the work such as recognizing texture of the orchestral, some perception of the serial, their overlapping and counterpoint moving which is one the Dodecaphonic music features and in this way get to know them. On the other hand, in the fourth movement with the function of sonnet no. 217, we see a complex connection of the combination of music with the poem that is interesting enough to be paid attention. That is, poem, in close connection with texture of the piece, that tries to repeat the 12-note serial and in order to avoid repetition and make new ones in music; the composer symmetries its beginning with a new note in the serial. Throughout this trend we can see the advent of the Retrograde or turning of the music in contrast with the music in the beginning of each hemistich. But it is worth reminding that the mentioned symmetry occurs from the second hemistich (because of reading the serial by the reader for the first time in the first hemistich). In this view maybe we could say that exercising formal change of poem is possible by a composer like Schoenberg, because through looking at the primary form of poem and presenting it by the reader in an analytical view we will see that poem also underwent some changes along with the music. Schoenberg has used some methods such as exchanging serial notes in different octaves, using different rhythmic figures for coordination and better presenting the meaning of the poem in orchestra in order to create diversity in solo line as same as other instruments. Finally, we can say that the general result of this analysis is identifying 4th movement of the collections 12-note part that can be accepted as a preface for enhancing the technique by composer and creating suite for piano op. 25.