نبوغ کانتی و بتهوون

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای فلسفة هنر، دانشکده الهیات و فلسفه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم تحقیقات تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار دانشکدة الهیات و فلسفه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم تحقیقات تهران، تهران، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه موسیقی دانشکدة هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران مرکز، تهران، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
نبوغ بیانگر ارزش و عظمت فردی است. اصطلاح نبوغ و تعریف آن یکی از مباحثی است که نظریه­پردازان و فلاسفه به معنی یکسانی از آن نمی­رسند. در کنار آن همیشه در بحث شاهکارهای هنری نیز مسئله این بوده است که برخی خلق این آثار را منوط به نبوغ خالق اثر دانسته و برخی نیز معتقد بودند که شاهکارهای هنری تنها ثمرة کوشش هنرمند است و مبحثی به نام نبوغ وجود ندارد. کانت یکی از فلاسفه­ای بود که مبحث نبوغ را در بخشی از زیبایی­شناسی­اش جای داد و خلق هنر زیبا را منوط به نبوغ نمود. از طرفی بتهوون نیز یکی از موسیقی­دانانی بود که همیشه در مورد خلق آثارش به واسطة نبوغ شخصی­اش بحث­های فراوانی شده است. بسیاری آثار او را، به واسطة وجود پیش‌نویس­هایی که قبل از اتمام قطعاتش داشته است، ثمرة کوشش او دانسته و دلیلی برای وجود نبوغ در خلق این آثار نمی­بینند. در این پژوهش تلاش می­شود تا بااستناد به تعریف کانت از نبوغ، اثبات شود خلق آثار بتهوون زاییده نبوغ او بوده است. هدف این پژوهش، در شیوة توصیفی‌اش، مطابقت نبوغ به مفهوم کانتی بر خلق موسیقاییِ بتهوون است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Kantian Genius and Beethoven

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahsa Khoie 1
  • Musa Akrami 2
  • Hassan Riahi 3
1 Ph.D Candidate, Faculty of Theology and Philosophy, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2 associate Professor, Faculty of Theology and Philosophy, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Music , Faculty of Art and Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Tehran central Branch, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Abstract. In the 18th century, the term ‘wit’ was held to be almost equal to the term ‘spirit’, and its notion, being applied both in music and in literature, was one of the most fundamental themes in poetry in the Age of Enlightenment. The meaning of the word changed during the time, however, its importance lasted until the Romantic era. At that period, the term ‘wit’ was defined as ‘intelligence’, and Godsheds used it in his poetry critics as if intelligence, wit, genius and judgment were different aspects of just one notion. Generally the term ‘genius’ demonstrates individual value and dignity. In the Age of Enlightenment, it is this individual dignity which is considered as the only condition for creating an art masterpiece. J. J. Rousseau warns young composers not to go after it. He says that genius is a natural and congenital talent that you will feel it if you have, you will feel it, while you will never understand it if you have not it. Kant deals with ‘genius’ in some paragraphs of his Critique of Judgment- one of the most important and valuable texts on aesthetics and philosophy of arts which is still influential with regard to aesthetical discourses. Kant also starts his work by traditionally paying attention to genius and talent, so that talent is defined as an instinctive gift that arises from the nature of a person, and genius as a force which gives regularity to arts. Kant believes that no knowledge exists as aesthetics except critical aesthetics, and no knowledge exists as knowledge of fine arts except critique of fine arts. He believes that the creation of fine arts is a result of genius. While, unlike Rousseau, Kant never brought up a direct discussion on creation of musical works by genius, the definition he gives for genius in creating all art-works seems to be totally adaptable to musical masterpieces too, signifying that music can be a product of genius as well. In this research we try to demonstrate how Kant’s definition of genius is adaptable to musical works, grounding our discourse on Beethoven and his masterpieces. The main reason for choosing Beethoven is the fact that his music seemingly not only belongs to his own time, but also goes beyond all times and eras. He was the greatest musician of his time and had remarkable impression on his successors. It has always been a matter of discussion, however, whether his creations were due to either much practice or genius.Now through Kant`s definition of genius it can be shown that Beethoven’s works were the results of both his genius and practice. We try to adapt Kant`s definition of genius with Beethoven’s works, and show that the signs of genius in Kant’s terminology are present in them. Moreover, referring to Beethoven pieces, we can show how it is possible to create music by genius in Kantian conception.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Aesthetics
  • Kant
  • Art Creation
  • Genius
  • Beethoven’s Music