بررسی ساختاری انیمیشن تلویزیونی، و ارائه الگوی تحلیل متن

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای پژوهش هنر، دانشگاه هنر و عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران،

2 استادیار، دانشکده هنرهای تجسمی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران

3 استادیار، دانشکده سینما و تئاتر، دانشگاه هنر، تهران

چکیده

چکیده
 
تولیدات انیمیشن به سه دسته عمده، انیمیشن تجربی، انیمیشن سینمایی و انیمیشن تلویزیونی تقسیم می‌شود. با توجه به گستردگی رسانه تلویزیون، انیمیشن تلویزیونی بازار وسیعی را به خود اختصاص داده است. این تحقیق بر این پیش فرض استوار است که عدم شناخت نسبت به "عناصر ساختاری"، تفاوت­ها، ویژگی­ها و کارکردهای انواع انیمیشن، باعث عدم برقرای ارتباط با مخاطب می‌گردد. براساس نظریه ساختارگرایی، با برقراری ارتباط بین اجزا (عناصر بیانی)، می‌‌توان به یافتن "معنی (پیام)" و دلالت‌هایی که در یک فیلم وجود دارد، رسید. بنابراین، فیلم و روایت آن را، نوعی ساختار یا به بیان دیگر، شیوه‌ای خاص برای تلفیق اجزا و پدید آوردن یک کل می‌توان تلقی کرد. هدف از این تحقیق، ارائه مدل و الگویی جامع، با توجه به نظرات فرنیس، بوردول و دیگران، برای بررسی عناصر ساختاری (نظام های نشانه شناسی) و تحلیل متن انیمیشن تلویزیونی است. بنابراین، شناخت و چگونگی عناصر ساختاری انیمیشن تلویزیونی، مسئله این تحقیق می‌باشد. این تحقیق برای رسیدن به نتیجه و طراحی الگویی جامع، عناصر ساختاری را، به عناصر ساختاری- بیانی ویژه انیمیشن، عناصر ساختاری متن دراماتیک (فیلمنامه)، عناصر ساختاری طراحی بصری، عناصر ساختاری طراحی صوتی و عناصر ساختاری تدوین تقسیم و با روشِ توصیفی- تحلیلی آنها را بررسی نموده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Structural studies of TV Animation and exposure method for Animation content analysis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ali Safoora 1
  • Kamran Afshar Mohajer 2
  • Fatemeh Hosseini Shakib 3
1 phD Students of Art University& Instructor, Faculty of Arch & Art, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Visual Arts, Art University, Tehran
3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Cinema Theater, Art University, Tehran
چکیده [English]

 
In a very general classification, films can be divided into three groups including fiction, nonfiction (i.e. documentary, experimental….) and animation. Animation, as one major member of the three is a hybrid medium and art form which employs the expressive elements of other arts; that is it hybridizes and utilizes elements of dramatic arts (mainly cinema) and fine arts (painting, graphic design, etc.). Thus it may be said that to study these ‘structural elements’ and utilizing them in an appropriate manner in TV animation production would mediate the ideal effect and message to the viewer. It is possible to group animation productions into three major groups of short experimental animation, feature-length and TV animation. Nowadays, TV animation production comprises the majority of the animation produced in the world since the massive number of TV channels throughout the globe has made such kind of animation highly demanded and marketed. In a very general outlook, it may be said that most TV animations as cheap and fast products have shared properties such as flat perspective, simple color pallets, and simple forms in designing characters as well as limited animation which is mostly mass produced with low budgets. The structural elements of the three different categories of animation mentioned before, while sharing many factors, are different and diverse dependent on the specificities of each medium. Each, have different properties in terms of their scripts, formal structures and so on; visual elements (such as color, form, texture and...) and also other determining factors (such as composition, lighting and so forth), aural elements (such as music, dialogue, and sound effects) and the animation script properties differ dependent on the type of medium as well as the target audience. This research is based on a hypothesis that ignoring the mentioned ‘structural elements’ as well as not considering the differences, properties and functions of the diverse range of animations would result in the production of weak and inefficient works which will eventually fail to communicate with the target audience or the intended message. Based on structural theories, it is possible to uncover the ‘message’ and significations of a work by creating practical relationships among its structural elements. Thus it is possible to consider a film and its narrative as a ‘structure’ or in other words, a specific way to synthesize the building blocks to create a coherent whole. In this research, the theories of Bordwell and Thompson, Esslin, Furniss and others who have proposed theoretical models to study and deconstruct structural elements of a dramatic text based on the concept of mise-en-scene are used to create a new method with consideration of novel relations to come to a comprehensive model by which to analyze animation texts, especially to examine the structural elements of TV animation productions. To reach such a model, the structural elements are divided into the structural/expressive elements specific to animation, dramatic text (screenplay), visual design, sound design, and structural elements of editing, and the properties of each will be studied in depth in the paper.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • KEYWORDS: Animation
  • TV Animation
  • Iranian Animation
  • Structural Elements
  • Content analysis