سیر تطور تنظیم آوازهای محلی ایرانی برای کُر و رهیافت‌های نوین

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دکترای موسیقی شناسی از انستیتو هنر آکادمی ملی علوم ارمنستان

چکیده

چکیده
     این مقاله برای نخستین بار به مطالعة " تنظیم آوازهای محلی ایرانی برای کُر" در تاریخ موسیقی نوین ایران می­پردازد. اهمیت بررسی این قالب موسیقایی در  طرح مسائل متعددی است که فرایند "تنظیم" را مستلزم فعالیت پیچیدة آهنگسازی ساخته، و آن را از صرف یافتن صداهای متناسب با آواز محلی (هارمونیگذاری) فراتر برده است. در پژوهش حاضر  با تکیه بر تحلیل نمونه­های آثار آهنگسازانی همچون روبن گریگوریان، سرگئی آغاجانیان، ثمین باغچه بان، محمد تقی مسعودیه و حمید عسکری، ضمن نشان دادن ویژگی ها و امکانات این گونة "تنظیم"، به تبیین دستاوردهای هنری آهنگسازان در این قالب پرداخته شده است. این تحلیل ها عمدتاً مرتبط با فرم، ساختار، هارمونی، پلی فونی و کلام می­باشند. این پژوهش نشان می­دهد که آهنگساز چگونه با نگرشی زیباشناسانه موفق به آفرینش چنان تابلوی رنگین صوتی می­گردد که  هم حیاتی نو به آواز محلی بخشیده و هم بعنوان یک اثر خلاقانة مستقل قابل مطالعه است. قالب "تنظیم آوازهای محلی برای کُر"، راه حل­های جدیدی در فرهنگ موسیقی یکصدایی ایران عرضه نموده و از این طریق در عرصة موسیقی ملی، رهیافت­های نوینی بویژه در زمینة هارمونی مُدال، الگوهای پلی فونیک و اسلوب­های ساختاری و آوایی نوین ارائه کرده است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Choral Arrangement of Iranian Folk Songs :The Evolution and New Approaches

نویسنده [English]

  • Hamid Askari Rabori
Ph.D. in Musicology, The Institute of Arts of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia
چکیده [English]

Abstract



 
 



  This Study shows that how each composer creates a colorful choral folksong picture, gives an individual  interpretation and new life to a folk melody, and also makes an independent musical work. The present article studies the choral arrangement of the Iranian folk songs as a creative musical genre of the modern Iranian music. The importance of this genre involves in several challenges which make the arrangement a complex occupation. Hence, the job engages not only with finding sounds accordance with folk song- harmonization-but also relates to diverse usage of all musical means such as harmony, rhythm, polyphony, musical texture and formal structure.  Iranian music in the early twentieth century, was faced with important challenges. On the one hand, it was necessary to collect and preserve national music, and on the other hand, to have a proper treatment with the above mentioned issues which at last led the course to the development of a professional music making trend. Analyzing the features of Iranian traditional monophonic songs has not inclusively given account here but it is worth mentioning that microtones in Iranian Muqams (modes) has caused a wide range of musical  intervals that can enhance the musical language. This does not  mean to make use of all these intervals in harmonic set, which may cause some limitations on choosing polyphonic patterns. Once needed,  the composer prudentially applied tempered model of folk songs in choral arrangements. The present study, which is a new survey of the field is based on analyzing the selected works of Iranian composers in A capella  choral arrangement  genre: Ruben Grigoriān (Damkol, Korashim), Sergey Aghājāniān (Massom massom, To bio), Samin Baghcheban (Ah dilbar), Mohammad Taghi Masoudieh (Khurde kija) and Hamid Askari (Gole gandom). The related analyzing comes about in relation to the form, structure, polyphony and word. Roben Grigorian (1915-1991), with his tonal inclination influenced by the classical harmony can be considered as the founder of the choral arrangement of the Iranian folk songs. Sergey Aghājāniān (1929-2006), with his developed tonal attitude affected by Komitas, has created affluent arrangements. Samin Baghcheban’s (1925 – 2008) understanding of the choir and its performing capacity has led him to create unique works, worth to mention for current research. The arrangements of Mohammad Taghi Masoudieh (1927-1988), gain their significance from his status as an ethnomusicologist. As a composer, Hamid Askari (b.1969) has always been engaged with the arrangement of Iranian folk songs. Regarding to the recent attempts done by Iranian composers, he has found it worthy to bring an example of his arrangement which sheds light on the subject.The scientific review of the choral arrangements attributed to different composers enable us to trace the evolution of the genre in the light of stylistic striving and artistic-aesthetical problems of  the national music school. The article’s conclusions highlight the significance of the Iranian folk song arrangements for choir, as a musical genre, for the development of the polyphonic pattern, modal harmony and rhythm, new structural and phonic techniques which in general have enriched Iranian  music.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Key words: Arrangement
  • Folk song
  • Choir
  • Iranian Music