عنوان مقاله [English]
This Study shows that how each composer creates a colorful choral folksong picture, gives an individual interpretation and new life to a folk melody, and also makes an independent musical work. The present article studies the choral arrangement of the Iranian folk songs as a creative musical genre of the modern Iranian music. The importance of this genre involves in several challenges which make the arrangement a complex occupation. Hence, the job engages not only with finding sounds accordance with folk song- harmonization-but also relates to diverse usage of all musical means such as harmony, rhythm, polyphony, musical texture and formal structure. Iranian music in the early twentieth century, was faced with important challenges. On the one hand, it was necessary to collect and preserve national music, and on the other hand, to have a proper treatment with the above mentioned issues which at last led the course to the development of a professional music making trend. Analyzing the features of Iranian traditional monophonic songs has not inclusively given account here but it is worth mentioning that microtones in Iranian Muqams (modes) has caused a wide range of musical intervals that can enhance the musical language. This does not mean to make use of all these intervals in harmonic set, which may cause some limitations on choosing polyphonic patterns. Once needed, the composer prudentially applied tempered model of folk songs in choral arrangements. The present study, which is a new survey of the field is based on analyzing the selected works of Iranian composers in A capella choral arrangement genre: Ruben Grigoriān (Damkol, Korashim), Sergey Aghājāniān (Massom massom, To bio), Samin Baghcheban (Ah dilbar), Mohammad Taghi Masoudieh (Khurde kija) and Hamid Askari (Gole gandom). The related analyzing comes about in relation to the form, structure, polyphony and word. Roben Grigorian (1915-1991), with his tonal inclination influenced by the classical harmony can be considered as the founder of the choral arrangement of the Iranian folk songs. Sergey Aghājāniān (1929-2006), with his developed tonal attitude affected by Komitas, has created affluent arrangements. Samin Baghcheban’s (1925 – 2008) understanding of the choir and its performing capacity has led him to create unique works, worth to mention for current research. The arrangements of Mohammad Taghi Masoudieh (1927-1988), gain their significance from his status as an ethnomusicologist. As a composer, Hamid Askari (b.1969) has always been engaged with the arrangement of Iranian folk songs. Regarding to the recent attempts done by Iranian composers, he has found it worthy to bring an example of his arrangement which sheds light on the subject.The scientific review of the choral arrangements attributed to different composers enable us to trace the evolution of the genre in the light of stylistic striving and artistic-aesthetical problems of the national music school. The article’s conclusions highlight the significance of the Iranian folk song arrangements for choir, as a musical genre, for the development of the polyphonic pattern, modal harmony and rhythm, new structural and phonic techniques which in general have enriched Iranian music.