عنوان مقاله [English]
Presently, there have been many new techniques and performance methods evolved in the process of creating stage atmosphere; and subsequently in stage deign. The dominating atmosphere and scenography receives more attention in the modern pieces and plays and for that reason, stage designers use modern and new technologies in stage creation. There are many significant pioneers in this area such as Appia, Graig, Meyerhold and in particular, Josef Svoboda. Svoboda’s extensive knowledge and abundant use of modern technology as well as attention to the special characteristic of theater stage created have special characteristics in his stage design and this research aims at analyzing and discussing the structure and the categories in his stage design/scenography creations. The main goal of this research is to determine techniques and creative methods employed by Svoboda in his stage design and creating the drama atmosphere. In order to achieve that goal, following minor goals have also been pursued: ● Determining the characteristics of stage design in Svoboda’s designs and their aesthetic principles, ● Determining the methods of affecting the audiences in Svoboda’s designs, ● Svoboda’s use of modern tools and new achievements in science in the philosophical concepts expression. Therefore, this paper seeks answers to the following questions: ● What were the specifications, patterns, models and categories in theater stage creation in Svoboda’s works?, ● What were the effect of architectural elements in creating the stage and developing stage design aesthetical perception in Svoboda’s design?, ● What were the effects and place of technology and machinery (mechanical equipment) in stage design? This fundamental and through research has used literature review to collect information on the subject, followed by selecting some of the most significant scenography performances of Svoboda and extracting information such as specifications, patterns, models, elements and categories of scenography creation and comparing the results. In this regards and by adopting a descriptive-analytical approach, the works and stage designs of Svoboda have been studied in order to while drawing and describing the atmosphere that governed his scenography notions, define the reasons and the special spatial qualities of his theatrical stages. In its path of analyzing Svoboda’s stage design ideas, and with respect to the noted goals, after reviewing fundamentals of research and history, the theoretical framework, questions, hypothesis and research methodology have been presented and analyzed under the two main topics as follows: ● Svoboda’s biography and innovations and creativities such as LaternaMagika and Polyekran., ● Svoboda’s approaches in stage design. This search gives the implication of the image of maintaining and saving ingenuity of theater with emphasize on the visual dynamism and variation, and linking it with architecture; as well as implication of that originality in creating stage/arena and its interaction with theater audience. In another word, by creating dynamic spaces and visual variation, Svoboda tries to make the image in the stage, make it attractive, enjoyable, beautiful and suitable as well as entertaining the theater audiences and ultimately, giving meanings to the element on the stage to stimulate the theater audiences to think.