عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Myths were created over the course of history by common people and during the past few centuries were used by sociologists and psychologists to study the primitive and quasi civilized societies. After the scientific and sociological developments of the 18th and 19th centuries in Europe, many poets, playwrights, authors, and other artists started to employ their personal and innovative techniques instead of following their Greco-Roman predecessors. These innovations achieved popularity by the end of 19th century. However, the realism of the literary figures and artists in the second half of the 19th century led to a sense of boredom and exhaustion in their audience which resulted in the emergence of alternative schools such as symbolism and surrealism. With the emergence of social media in the 20th century, we witness a development of public information. Many European authors have been busy rewriting myths. The 20th century witnessed an increasing significance of theoretical foundation of mythology in anthropology, archeology, literature and arts; more notably the reexamination of myth in different theories is emerging again. Researchers have proposed a variety of definitions of myth based on works done on sociological, anthropological, psychological, traditional and various structural approaches and functional backgrounds. Each has offered a definition of myth according to his own personal and ideological understanding and characteristics and finally based on his cultural beliefs. This paper uses Jung’s ideas which form the theoretical foundation for our analysis of Le Visage d’Orphée by Olivier Py. Jung defines myth as a reproduction of universal human archetypes and leads literary critiques in deciphering and applying these archetypes in literature. Olivier Py is one of these writers who as a member of this literary/mythological movement that was closely tied to dramatic literature of ancient Greece inspired by Greek mythology, created plays with religious themes as Le Visage d’Orphée. Py’s religious tendencies are clearly exposed in his other works as well. The story of Orphée is one of the most mysteriously of Greek myths which influenced the early Christianity. The most important event in Orphee’s life is going down to spirits’ world to bring back his beloved wife, Oridis, who has been killed by a snake, up to earth. In this paper, we first offer our definition of myth, then we move on to archetypes and their application, and then we introduce Orphee the renowned Greek myth. And finally, we will analyze the play Le Visage d’Orphée by Olivier Py. The method in writing this paper is analytical, using resources like books and essays, as well as field research, including interviews with Olivier Py, writer of Le Visage d’Orphée. In this paper, we first offer our definition of myth, then we move on to archetypes and their application, and then we introduce Orphee the renowned Greek myth. And finally, we will analyze the play Le Visage d’Orphée by Olivier Py. The method in writing this paper is analytical, using resources like books and essays, as well as field research, including interviews with Olivier Py, writer of Le Visage d’Orphée.