عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
The main purpose of this article is to study common-third triad pairs in the chamber music of Alfred Schnittke. This harmonic device consists of major and minor triads which are a semitone apart and have the same chordal third; C major and C# minor, which will be labeled c.t. E (common-third E), D major and Eb minor labeled as c.t. F#, etc. After a short introduction on the history of shared elements in Western Classical harmony, we will study Schnittke's approach in using the common-third triad pairs. The study of Schnittke's chamber music reveals that this technique is often marked by the keyboard instrument and is used to serve two purposes: creating harmonic progressions and building polychords. In creating progressions, the common chordal third produces a static feel while the stepwise motions create a dramatic harmonic change which results in an uncommon progression in traditional harmony. With this method, Schnittke borrows the triad-based harmony from the common practice era without applying the functionality of the chords which results in a fresh harmonic language. The study of the excerpts shows that the common third almost always remains in the same register whiles the harmony changes. When used in a sequence, the common third might move up or down stepwise to create a smooth voice-leading between the progressions. In addition to harmonic progressions, Schnittke uses common third principle to construct polychords. As opposed to common-third progressions where the pure nature of each triad is maintained, the shared-third polychords obscure the sonority of the components which makes it an ideal formula to make complex harmonies. The polychords created by this technique can be divided into two groups: Polychords with distinct triads in different registers, and clusters in which triads are not separated by register. In type 1, depending on the register, the quality of the triads could be distinguishable to the ear. Sometimes one triad is heard and then the other one is played after a delay so the listener can identify the nature of each chord, and then appreciate the combination. In addition to the common-third clusters, Schnittke's music features juxtaposition of major and minor thirds. As opposed to the common-third structures where the third remains while the root and fifth change, we refer to major/minor juxtaposition as split-third triad pairs because of different thirds and common root and fifths. Therefore, Schnittke juxtaposes two contrasting techniques in some parts of his music: polychords with shared chordal third but different roots and fifths, and chords with shared roots and fifths with different thirds. This organized combination of contrasting approaches in Schnittke’s harmonic language has roots in his polystylistic thoughts. As the article continues we will see how sometimes Schnittke combines these techniques with other compositional devices such as canon and dodecaphony to strengthen his music. The study of the excerpts from his chamber music will create an insight into his strong musical language which could be helpful for composers of our time.