دانشجوی دکتری پژوهش هنر، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Catching a glimpse of the Iranian music’s history, in the presented research, efforts have been made in order to carry out a review on the role and the impact of the produced tones on the lifespan and the indelibility of the instruments during Ilkhanid and Timourid dynasties. Three main elements, impacting upon tones produced by instruments, have been identified in this research. Those are as follows:1- Performing theoretical scale of Musical System. 2- Pitch range 3- Performing a number of tones simultaneously. When it comes to performing theoretical scale, the way the theoretical scale has been performed in the 17-tone Safi-al-din scale has been studied through the instruments that were quite fashionable at the time. Speaking of pitch range, we come across two main subjects that and those are Jame Tam and performing Naghme Lu. Only a particular number of instruments have been able to perform two-octave of Jame Tam and Naghme Lu. Next, the way in which few tones could be performed simultaneously by the instruments that were the mode back then has been studied. Within a review of the aforementioned three effective factors on the tones produced by instruments, the importance of Ud as perfect instrument appears noteworthy in all three aspects. The point that within a distinct pitch range, which tones will be selected; is determined by the Musical System Theoretical Scale and since the subject of study in this research was the music of Systematist School, extraction of the Theoretical Scale of Safi al-din has been intended. According to the treatises of Systematist School, it can be realized that some of the instruments described in these documents were able to produce the 17-tone Theoretical Scale. On the other hand, the point that, in which range does an instrument perform the tones of its Musical System Theoretical Scale, depends on the pitch range of the instrument. And also the fact that, whether the playable tones by a particular instrument, are performed consecutively, or they also posses the ability to perform simultaneously; is another factor which can impact upon the acoustic characteristics of an instrument. Regarding the topic of "Pitch Range" in theoretical basics of Iranian ancient music, we come across the two concepts of "Jame Tam" and "Naghmeh Lu". Jame Tam means the entire tones extractable from an instrument. the Jame Tam, of importance in the documents of Systematist School, includes the interval between two octaves, which was called Zel-kolle Marratein. In a way that, one of the reasons of the addition of the fifth string or "Had" to Ud has been stated to extract this interval. Furthermore, out of Jame Tam range, also we will come across a tone called "Naghmeh Lu". Iran's ancient music theoreticians have always spoke of Ud in the topics of Jame Tam and Naghmeh Lu, therefore the importance of Ud becomes ostensible, in addition to its performing of Theoretical Scale and Adwar tones. The Importance of Ud as perfect instrument in perspective of the third factor, meaning the ability to perform a number of tones simultaneously is also considerable.