عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
This article tries to have a look at the records of Iranian dramatic arts by researching myths and beliefs and also looking at the motifs of artifacts in pre - Islamic period of Iran . With a comparative analysis we hope to find other evidences about cultural relationships between these motifs and magnitude of drama in life of pre - Islamic people of Iran . Time range of this research encompasses 6th millennium BC to Sassanian period and we will begin with a look at pre - Islamic Persian literature. With detailed study of Iranian artifacts in museums and private collections around the world we can find that dramatic rituals in Iran are very older than we think . Iranians have known drama in form of dance, Music, play or religious rituals and also have used dramatic instruments like mask, costumes of animals or plants, musical instruments for rhythm etc. at least since 6th millennium BC. We can't disunite dance, play and drama in ancient traditions of Iran. These tree cultural mixed forms have served rituals like celebration, mourning and worship . And the actors have been masters of music, dance, physical acts and manners of expression. In many of local dialects of Iran, words like Bazi ( means play and game ), Vazi, Vazik and Bazhik refer to dance . We could not disunite these two concept ( play and dance ) in folkloric cultures of Iran . Life, events and fights of gods and goddesses and also style, appearance and raiment of them in pre - Islamic texts of Iran sometimes is described so vivid and precise that we have no choice but except that the writer have seen a statue, play or act about these divinities in that time . These dances and plays may be concern with celebrations, ceremonies and rites for divinities. We can find many dramatic scenes in pre - Islamic literature of Iran ( books and texts like Yashtha, Dinkard, Bondahesh, Minug-I Kherad, Gozide hay-e Zadesparam, Pos-I Daneh Kamag, Zand-I Vahoman Yasn, Gojastak Abalish, Ardaviraf Naameh, Jamasp Naameh, Yadegar-I Zariran, Derakht-I Asurik, Karnameh-I Ardashir etc.). It is said in a Pahlavi text named " Khosrow Qobadan and Ridak " that in Sassanian Farhangestan (school) masters of play and music have taught kids how to play or dance . Musicians and dancers have been always a significant part of courts in Iran. Gowsans were rhapsodic musicians in pre - Islamic period of Iran. Musical instruments and artifacts with pictures of dancers, players or actors were found in many of archaeological sites in Iran, like Tepe Sabz, Ja'far Abad, Chogha Mish, Tall-e Jari, Cheshmeh Ali, Ismaeel Abad, Tal-e bakun, Tepe Sialk, Tepe Musian, tepe Yahya, Shahdad, Tepe Gian, Kul Farah, Susa, Kok Tepe, Cemeteries of Luristan, Kalmakareh, Ziwieh, Hatra, Bishapour, Taq-I Bostan etc. This research has tried to collect these evidences and arrange them in order of antiquity, so we could extract useful information about history of dance, music and dramatic acts in Iran.