مطالعه‌ی تطبیقی آیین زار در ایران و سودان

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشگاه هنر تهران

2 کارشناس ارشد پژوهش هنر، دانشگاه هنر تهران

چکیده

مقاله‌ی حاضر، تحقیقی است تطبیقی بین مراسم زار در جنوب ایران (استان هرمزگان) و شرق آفریقا (سودان) که به روش توصیفی- اکتشافی و با استفاده از تکنیک‌های کتابخانه‌ای و مطالعات میدانی انجام یافته است. در میان بومیان این منطقه اعتقاد بر این است که بیماری‌های انسان به دلیل بادها یا هواهای شیطانی‌ای است که در بدن آدمی رسوخ کرده و او را دچار کسالت‌های روحی و جسمی می‌کنند. بنابراین می‌توان با مراسم مخصوصی این بادها را آرام کرد و بیماری را از بین برد. مراسم زار دارای موسیقی‌ای ریتمیک بر پایه‌ی سازهای کوبه‌ای است. موسیقی خلسه‌آوری که با اجرای آن و مجموعه اعمالی دیگر از جمله مراسم قربانی، درمان بیمار را موجب می‌شود. از آنجا که به لحاظ دیرینه شناسی، ریشه‌های آیین زار از آفریقای شرقی سرچشمه می‌گیرد و در گذر زمان در مناطقی از خاورمیانه و به‌ویژه کشورهای حاشیه‌ی خلیج فارس و دریای سرخ گسترش یافته، این پژوهش در پی آن است تا با بررسی و مطالعه‌ی نقاط اشتراک و افتراق این آیین در آفریقا (سودان) و ایران (هرمزگان) به روند تغییر در دو حوزه‌ی ساختاری (شکلی و محتوایی) و موسیقایی بپردازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Comparative Study of Zār Ceremony in Iran and Sudan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeed Zavieh 1
  • Mehdi Aslemarz 2
چکیده [English]

The present article is a comparative research between Z?r ceremony in south of Iran (Hormozgan Province) and east Africa (Sudan). This research has been accomplished, based on the descriptive/exploratory methods, using library techniques and domain studies. People in these regions believe that human illnesses are caused by Jins or satanic winds which penetrate in human body causing physical and mental disorders. Thus by performing certain ceremonies these winds or whispers could be destroyed, curing the illness. The belief in these monsters among indigenous people is so strong that no one can make a crack on it. They are extremely firm in their beliefs so that they seek cure for illnesses only from the healing hands of old magicians and not from modern medical experts. The healers of these diseases, in Iran are called “Baba” and “Mama”. In Sudan, they are called “Sheikh” or “Sheikha”. Belief in jinni or conquering soul by jinni exists among different Muslim society cultures throughout the world with different names, but most researchers believe that the source and root of these beliefs lie in African communities. The Winds, as flow down from Africa to the Iranian coasts are combined with culture and myths and different stories so that even they change their former content and embrace an Islamic form. Among these changes are poems and prayers, traditions and manners, sacred and prohibited. Nonetheless they have not lost the sharp colorful African ceremonies.The people who are captured by these winds and then released are called “Ahl-E Hava“. After getting released from the jinni, Ahl-E Hava enter a new community and similar to their healer set up a new identity. In this new identity, they do not feel weakness and undertake new responsibilities. The masters of Ahl-E Hava are all Negro or black colored and have one or several Winds in the head, in other words they have been captured by the Winds several times. Z?r is a ceremony which is remained from primitive tribes in western Africa and is performed as a healing ritual among women and earlier slaves. The study of Z?r helps to understand the rituals and beliefs of this region. Z?r is one of the spiritual rituals in this area which focuses on the fact that God is the only and the absolute power in the universe. Z?r ceremony contains a rhythmic music based on Percussion instruments. An ecstasy music which accompanied by performing some other ceremonies such as dancing and sacrificing, causes the treatment of the illness. According to anthropology, the roots of Z?r ceremony lies in east African traditions and by passage of time had spread through some regions in the Middle East and the Red Sea. This research is intended to investigate and study similarities and differences of this tradition in Africa (Sudan) and the path it has passed over the years to reach south of Iran (Hormozgan province). We try to investigate the process of the changes of this tradition from two different aspects, structure (form and content) as well as musical aspect.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bād
  • Percussion Instrument
  • Psychosis
  • Regional Music
  • Zār Ceremony