عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The light in modern concept has accompanied by theater as one of the formative elements of showing art from the first days of theater emergence and todays various functions have been defined for that and it has been and is being used for different purpose. On the other hand, the light is always with shadow on the scene and lack of light causes to darkness on the scene. So, the light, shadow, and darkness can be known as an elements common domain and the ratios and their functions would be examined. Position of light, shadow, darkness, and their functions has a major milestone in history of theater and that milestone is thoughtful and theoretician presence of Adolf Appia on arena of theater. Before Appia's time, showing groups, regardless of shadow and darkness only considered the light to light up the scene to see the exciting elements on the scene including actor, decoration, and accessoire. But, with presence of Appia, the shadow, darkness, and light became three ingredients of showing art and each of them found different position and function. Appia strongly focused on the light element on scene and considered its counterparts, that is, shadow and darkness as two separate elements. He believed that it should be absorbed all of the visual elements of scene by light in one”total unity”, consequently, the light together with actor create vertical decoration and horizontal floor of existing elements on theater scene as possible as highest unity; i.e., “perfect unity”. In point of view Appia, the light together with shadow and darkness cause to painting the scene, and in addition, these three elements with each other lead to be three- dimensional scene. He believes that the light which is important in the theater shapes the shadow; otherwise, this light only defines and shows and has not any value. In point of view Appia, the light, shadow, and darkness have several important functions that they are as bellows: The light will create and provide the state and space, It will induce the emotion to viewer, It will appear the basis of place and time dimension and the variation of them, It will create the visual unity and solidarity of different and sporadic elements on scene, The shadow and darkness will present the fundamental and/or important shape, They extract the space from hollow being state, They will visual verification the shape, They will return the emotion to induced state of scene. The aim of this article is to examine and compare the two historical sections before and after Adolph Appia on theater scene in point of view application and the nature of light, shadow, and darkness in the arena, and also to examine and explain Appia’s opinions about functions of light, shadow, and darkness in theater, that it is lead to create new attitudes in this arena. Research methodology used in this article is analytic – descriptive and it has used library technique in it.