عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The source of energy for playing aerophones is the air that is conducted through the instrument via the lips of the player. Despite the fact that the function of the respiratory system is consistent among all players, the method of blowing varies from one instrument to another. Every instrument, and more specifically, every player must find the most appropriate method of utilizing the lips vis-a-vis their desired tone. Gaining sufficient knowledge about this process, along with respiratory and tone exercises, allows players to reach an ideal sonority. Wind players usually encounter difficulties with respect to their desirable sound due to the inadequacies of intonation in the different registers of their instruments. While miscalculations in the structure of the instrument can be one reason for the lack of appropriate intonation, major intonation and tone problems result from the misuse of the respiratory organs and the lack of coordination in the body of the player. In western instruments, such problems have been solved through more careful pedagogy, better calculations on the instruments and attention to body coordination when playing instruments. This paper proposes that the proper use of the respiratory system as well as the correct positioning of the lips, along with better coordination in the head-neck-torso continuum can have an effective role in eradicating tone and intonation problems on the Ney. Ney playing depends greatly on the function of the respiratory organs such as the lungs, diaphragm, trachea, tongue, teeth and the lips. The appropriate use of the above organs as well as coordination in the body of the player can influence tone and intonation on the Ney. An incorrect application of the above organs often leads to the use of too much pressure during exhalation and inhalation, and the surplus of pressure causes a lack of consistency in the natural movement of the air. Fluctuations in the air stream can affect the production of notes in the higher range of the Ney and can lead to insufficiencies in the performance of certain intervals which in the long run prohibits the player from gaining a stable tone and correct intonation. The objective of this paper is to provide solutions that enhance the quality of performance on the Ney. The authors have used aural and visual sources and made comparative observations based on the principles of the Alexander Technique. The paper provides a brief explanation of the breath mechanism and looks at its application on the Ney, introducing an efficient method that helps the player gain awareness of the natural function of the respiratory mechanism and gain better control over breath, tone and intonation. The lack of specific methods in the pedagogy of Iranian traditional instruments does not allow systematic approaches toward the learning of these instruments and often confronts players with challenges that unveil as the player advances in technique and style. This paper makes an attempt in providing solutions to the above deficiencies and advocating the necessity of systematic approaches in the pedagogy of Iranian musical instruments.