استادیار دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Many mythological roots and cosmological tendencies link Ibsen’s characters to their archaic origins in ancient cultures. Hence, a study of the symbolic essence reveals many ideas seen in the Zoroastrian template, and this can serve like a key for opening the unknown dimensions of Ibsen’s works.The mythopoetic inclinations in Ibsen's works and the common elements of his characters with those of the Persian mythic characters was the motivation of this research. Ibsen’s way of using the mythopoetic substance to express human experiences and aspirations is one of the unique styles in play writing due to it's layers of meaning. Looking more closely at those common traits, I realized that there were numerous idiosyncrasies common to the characters created in Ibsen plays and the characters in Zoroastrian mythology. This should not sound strange. Ibsen’s aesthetical approach to individualism, humanism and the total consciousness of modern man are said to be traits also in Greek philosophies, especially that of Plato. But Greek philosophy was, in turn, rooted in Zoroastrian philosophy. In the Zoroastrian philosophy, the initiatives taken towards reasoning as an attempt to comprise a primitive rationalism and consciousness of man resembles Ibsen’s search for the discovery of the essence and foundation of the phenomena of life through total consciousness. To examine my reading of Ibsen’s literary works, I tried to compare Solness’ character in The Master Builder with the myth of Jamshid, the first human being, who leaves Heaven to protect the earth in Zoroastrian philosoph, in order to prove the eternality of reflection from the ancient to Ibsen’s time. The drama, Brian Johnston states, is a major archetypal expression of Western consciousness. Ibsen’s continued presence on the world theatrical stages, in the West as well as the East, is an indication of the potential of his realistic characters, who enjoy the same unchanging and common elements often found in ancient mythology. At the same time and in parallel way, these characters live in worlds that endow them with the characteristics of a society in a particular period, and their behavior thereby becomes a reflection of their surrounding environment. Moreover, they are accompanied by mythological and timeless values, which enable modern man to establish a connection with the ancient world. Thus, such characters become symbols that not only determine the peculiarities of the society to witch they belong, but they also reveal the cosmological aspects of their contemporary world. Considering the symbolic traits and qualities of ancient mythology, his characters reflect archaic images of modernity. To examine my reading of Ibsen’s literary works, I tried to compare the modern individualistic attitude of Solness’s character in Master Builder with the myth of Jamshid, the first human being, who leaves heaven to protect the earth, in Zoroastrian philosophy in order to prove the eternality of the reflection from the ancient to Ibsen’s time. The Impact which was made upon Ibsen`s plays through Nietzsche’s Thus spoke Zarathustra.