عنوان مقاله [English]
The concept of "power" has been an important subject for major political and social thinkers, and the cycle of "power transfer" has always been considered and investigated by authors. Also, since there are usually periods of transition and power changes in all societies, this subject has been significant for the playwrights. Generally, power transfer occurs through a variety of forms: “revolution”, “coup d’etat”, “elections” and “death of kings”. Nowadays, using the concept of power is a common theme in dramatic works, which is broadly applicable to Shakespeare's tragedies. In this essay, we attempt to use political and social concepts of power to analyze the events in Shakespeare's plays that have been formed around this notion. It is essential to know that power structures in theater have an exploratory and expository approach. In other words, the nature of dramaturgy and directing is review and decoding, whereas power structures are not interested in revealing the reality. Therefore, in confrontation between these two subjects, we encounter a fundamental paradox. In the present study, we investigated the elements of power in three tragedies of Shakespeare, namely King Lear, Macbeth, and Julius Caesar; and compare them with Bertrand Russell’s (1938) theory of “power” and the concept of “change of power”. In Russell's view, power is based on conservation law in physics and constantly changes from one form to another. He believes that a shift of power in many cases leads to changes in its type and essence. In The Power (2005), He categorized power based on forms such as “priestly power”, “kingly power”, and “naked power” which is an important categorization in our classification. Also, we use Michel Foucault’s theories to complete the explanations forsome of these concepts. After clarifying these theoretical considerations as the framework, we explore the effects of the political and social events related to the characters of the above-mentioned plays; to show how types of power have been displayed in Shakespeare’s plays, and how to use power as a dramatic element in dramaturgy and character analysis. According to the definitions provided by Russell of the forms of power, it is quite clear that Shakespeare dealt with all aspects of power and the contemporary dramaturgy of his plays has shown that the importance of power never disappears; only it changes from one form to another. In most cases, the dramaturge can change the time, place, and cultural identity of a text to an extent, that any performance of Shakespeare’s plays can be described as a translation. Thus, after analyzing the texts, we have chosen a film of contemporary performances of each play, and we have also presented the selected scenes in the form of a director's notebook plans. In conclusion, the results of this article show that familiarity with different forms of power can provide the director with various new suggestions in the field of directing and character relationship analysis.