نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
گروه موسیقی، دانشکده موسیقی و هنرهای نمایشی، دانشکدگان هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The present repertoire of Iranian classical music, Radif, is known for seven Dastgāh and six Āvāz. Generally, "Dastgāh" itself is considered a closed logic with the framework it creates. Due to the fact that this framework is based on a permutation of modal entities, it is considered flexible and semi-frozen. In other words, it is feasible to have Dastgāh-ha (s. Dastgāh) as many narrators as there are existing or nonexistent modal entities that have not yet been created. It is even possible to rearrange and recreate a Dastgāh with a different structure and modal order from among the current Dastgāh-ha; the same as before the freezing of the repertoire, where each master, arising from each "Maktab,” presented his account of it.
One of the potential feasibilities in the repertoire is combining two modal entities and obtaining one modal entity from them. One of the prominent examples of this feasibility is "Dād-o Bidād,” invented and created by Hossein Alizādeh. This case, which is considered one of the notable examples of creativity in Iranian classical music in the musicology literature, was created by combining the modal characteristics of two entities, "Dād" from Dastgāh-e Māhūr and "Bidād" from Dastgāh-e Homāyūn.
The bottom layers of the Radif reveal that the mentioned feasibility has been used and introduced in a completely traditional manner inside the Radif. "Zirkesh-e Salmak," as a turning point in the construction of the Dastgāh-e Shūr, acts as a bridge between two general sections, "Shūr" and "Salmak" or "Shahnāz.” In this modal entity, the modal behavior of "Shūr" and "Salmak" are combined, like "Dād-o Bidād.” Therefore, the “Zirkesh-e Salmak” is considered as an initial space for the occurrence of “Salmak” at macro-level. Apart from "Zirkesh-e Salmak,” this potential modal feasibility has been expanded and actualized in "Afshāri" and "Dashti.” In these two Āvāz, by using the exchange of Ajnās (s. Jens) and pointing to the spaces before and after the "Salmak,” a modal behavior emerges, in which the fifth degree higher than the "Shūr" is known as a "Moteghayyer".
Through a combination of descriptive, analytical, and comparative methods, the present article explores and demonstrates the feasibility and method of obtaining new modal entities through modal fusions by studying two sample groups, including "Dād-o Bidād" and Dastgāh-e Shūr with its related modes in Radif of Abdullāh Davāmi. The information for this paper has been gathered through the analysis of audio and written materials as well as the author's own practical experiences. This research shows that the fusion of modal spaces based on the initiative and knowledge of the performer is a distinct process from "modulation" in Iranian classical music. In "Modgardi" (modulation) or what is known as "Morakkab Navāzi/Khāni," the border between the modal entity of "A" and "B" is wholly defined according to the modal behavior they express (for example). But in the process of "modal fusion,” the same entities "A" and "B" create a space that, depending on the narrator's ability, will be musically equivalent to "AB,” "BA," or even "C.”