نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشکده سینما و تئاتر، دانشگاه هنر تهران
2 دانشیار گروه هنرهای نمایشی، دانشکده سینما و تئاتر، دانشگاه هنر تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
This research aims to read the writing of the inexpressible by looking at the works of Samuel Beckett and Gertrude Stein. So, The research studies the materialization of later dramatic texts at the intersection with modern drama, by referring to the idea of Gertrude Stein's Landscape theatre and Beckett's later drama. studies the materialization of their dramatic text. Specifically, Gertrude Stein's plays and Beckett's writings in his later periods (Not I, Footfalls, That Time, Breathe, Fizzle 5) are examined. This form of complex and deconstructive written form, with the re-identification of writing, moves towards a self-referential text from the perspective of archeology of the Postdramatic theatre. Postdramatic text, which is self-reflective, looking for a change in perceiving the text by the other elements in the scene in coherence with the text, aims to the audience for new experiences in the common realm of senses and reconsidering the other texts in the performing arts. To form an experience for the audience of his dramatic works, Beckett uses images that include language constructions and self-referencing and deconstructing the dramatic text in the direction of conventional representation. Gertrude Stein's idea of Landscape writing is based on trying to reach the essence of what is happening and in criticizing the conditions of the theater and the representational structures that it puts forward. Stein seeks to reveal the essence that unlocks the language of the play from happening elsewhere and rebirths it. Also, Beckett in his later drama removes the work from the realm of knowing and signs, borrows the words to express the inexpressible, and re-arranges the representational form in text and performance. Through the interrelating of absence and the object trajectory of desire to the hole of nothing, the research looks for the answers to the Beckettian formation of writing. Like Maurice Blanchot, Beckett in the latest plays starts from nothing. Phenomenologically, death or lack is present. In his writing structure and content, we may notice a disorder in the order of playwriting. Beckett uses this formation for shaping the meaning like internal moves in the Derridan, from the representative image. In some other texts, the initial image can be referred to as an anthropological difference, He represents man at the edge of war and catastrophes with many victims. These efforts are the archeology of the de-focalization of text landscape in post-dramatic theater, And This essay tries to associate Beckett's latest plays - from «Krapp's Last Tape« written in 1956 to «What Where» written in 1983- with the intertextuality of Gertrude Stein’s writing and theatre studies to the lost situation's lack from the Lacanian point of view and the modern man's landscape in the representation realm that is common ground with victimhood. These writings were critics of the contemporary situation of theatre and form a path to embodied texts in post-dramatic theatre which are also representative of the traumatic situation of contemporary man. Beckett and Stein were trying to express the inexpressible in their theatre and play from the void between the words.