مطالعه‌ی تحلیلی روایت‌درمانی در نمایشنامه‌های روایی برایان فریل

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد/دانشگاه علوم و تحقیقات دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی تهران ایران

2 گروه هنرهای نمایشی/ دانشکده هنرهای زیبا/ دانشگاه تهران/ تهران/ ایران

3 گروه هنر دانشکده هنر دانشگاه علوم و تحقیقات دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی تهران ایران

چکیده

چکیده
رویکرد روایت‌درمانی روشی روایی برای درمان است که اولین بار توسط مایکل وایت و دیوید اپستون ارائه گردید. این رویکرد، به درمان از طریق روایات زندگی افراد توجه دارد و مشکلات افراد را در نوع نگاهشان به روایات و گفتمان فرهنگی غالب می‌داند و بر شعار "فرد مشکل نیست بلکه مشکل، مشکل است" تأکید دارد. روایت‌درمانی فرایندی است متشکل از شش مرحله که شامل توصیف سرشار از مشکل، نام‌گذاری مشکل، برونی‌سازی، گفتمان فرهنگی، اتصال پیامدهای یگانه و روایت جایگزین است. برایان فریل نمایشنامه‌نویس ایرلندی، در آثارش غالباً به تأثیر جامعه و گفتمان فرهنگی غالب بر زندگی افراد می‌پردازد. فریل به پشتوانه‌ی تجارب خود از معلمی و کشیش بودن بهره برده است و در نمایشنامه‌هایش با استفاده از نگاه روایت‌محور آثار روایی خلق کرده است. بررسی عناصر و فرایند روایت‌درمانی همچون بیان روایی مشکلات، گفتمان فرهنگی و استفاده از زبان در آثار منتخب فریل نشان از اشتراکات بین نظریات روایت‌درمانی و نمایشنامه‌های فریل با یکدیگر است. ازاین‌رو دو اثر مالی سویینی و شفابخش از نگاه روایت‌درمانی بررسی می‌گردد. با بررسی مراحل روایت‌درمانی در این دو نمایشنامه می‎توان دریافت چون این مراحل به‌طور کامل درروند روایت شخصیت‌ها طی نمی‌شود، درنهایت پروسه درمان به انجام نمی‌رسد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Analytical Study of Narrative Therapy in Brian Friel's Narrative Plays

نویسندگان [English]

  • tannaz abbasi garavand 1
  • Farrindokht Zahedi 2
  • Parastoo Mohebbi 3
1 M A dramatic literature/Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Performing Arts / Faculty of Fine Arts / University of Tehran / Tehran / Iran
3 Department of Art, Faculty of Arts, University of Science and Research, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
The narrative-therapy approach is an approach to therapy first proposed by Michael White and David Epston. This approach focuses on a treatment through the narratives of people's lives and considers their problems as dominant in the way they look at narratives and cultural discourse, and emphasizes that "one is not a problem but a problem is a problem”. Narrative therapy is a six-step process that includes problem-solving, problem-naming, externalization, cultural discourse, connecting single consequences, and alternative narrative. The Irish playwright Brian Friel often focuses on the influence of society and the dominant cultural discourse on people's lives. Based on his experiences, Friel has used being a teacher and a priest and has created narrative works in his plays using a narrative-centered perspective. Examining the process and elements of narrative-therapy such as narrative expression of problems, cultural discourse and the use of language in Friel's selected works show the commonalities between the theories of narrative-therapy and Friel's plays. Therefore, the two financial effects of Molly Sweeney and healing are examined from the perspective of narrative therapy. By examining the stages of narrative therapy in these two plays, it can be understood that these stages are not completely completed in the process of narration of the characters, and finally the treatment process is not performed. The present study points to the narrative and validity of the narrative and then introduces the theory of narratives. Then, plays of the Irish writer Brian Friel, have been analyzed. This research introduces theory and narrative therapy, and then expresses that there is no problem in the lives of people, and whatever the problem is described is the false narrative of people those narrations can overcome the problem. The mind understands the experiences of people through narrations. Traditions are an integral part of people's lives, the problems are our false traditions of experience, and narrative therapy is a new method for treating and ignoring people's problems. Problems and whatever the norm is introduced is all the product of society and the identity of individuals is meaningful and shaped through communication with others. Meanwhile, the works of Brian Friel, especially his narrative plays, reflect a kind of narrativity through the characters of the story. Understanding narrative therapy theory and adapting it to Friel's narrative effects can provide a suitable model for analyzing Friel's works from this perspective. According to narrative therapy theory, it is believed that people understand their lives as stories and consequently re-create themselves through an ongoing process of narrative signification. "Language" is not only a means of expressing human thoughts and feelings, but it also plays an essential role in creating or changing, and maintaining the realities of humans. Individuals generally communicate with the inner concepts and the external world through language and with the means of "narrative". One's knowledge is the result of a social context and this knowledge is transmitted by narrative. It can be said that identity has a narrative meaning.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Narrative Therapy
  • Narrative. Brian Friel
  • Mali Sweeney
  • Healing