خوانش بینامتنی اسطوره‌ی میوه ممنوعه در سه نمایشنامه‌ی برتر جشنواره‌های تئاتر کودک و نوجوان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشکده ی ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بیرجند

2 گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی- دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی- دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

آثار نمایشی کودک و نوجوان، بویژه وقتی پدیدآورندگان آن‌ها، در تعاملی بینامتنی با متون کهن، عناصر ساختاری مهمی از قبیل زمان، مکان، شخصیت‌های داستانی و گاه حتی همه‌ی یک پیکره داستانی را دستمایه کار خود قرار

می‌دهند، گذشته از فراهم‌آوردن زمینه‌ی سرگرمی، تفریح و تخلیه‌ی روانی، از سویی کارکرد آموزشی دارد و از دیگرسو بستر مناسبی است برای انتقال میراث نیاکانی (سنت‌ها، آیین‌ها و ...) به آگاهی نسل امروز. یکی از این آبشخورهای برجسته، اسطوره و روایت‌های اسطوره‌ای است که همواره به اشکال مختلف در آیین‌ها، باورها و متون ادبی و هنری از جمله داستان‌ها، نمایشنامه‌ها و فیلمنامه‌ها بازتاب یافته ‌است. در این جستار با بهره‌گیری از نظریه‌ی بیش‌متنیت ژرار ژنت، به شیوه‌ی توصیفی- تحلیلی، چگونگی بازآفرینی اسطوره‌ی میوه‌ی ممنوعه (سیب) در سه نمایشنامه‌ی برتر جشنواره‌های تئاتر کودک و نوجوان بررسی شده است. از مهم‌ترین یافته‌های پژوهش حاضر می‌توان به این موارد اشاره کرد: نویسندگان این نمایشنامه‌ها بیشتر با بهره بردن از روش گسترش متن (تراگونگی کمی)، بن‌مایه‌ی اسطوره‌ای میوه-ی ممنوعه را به کار برده‌اند. البته در قسمتی از نمایشنامه‌ها نیز برای درک بهتر و جذاب کردن نمایش، تراگونگی محتوایی نیز به چشم می‌خورد. از این رو، زوایای پنهان این نمایشنامه‌ها در پیوند با این بن‌مایه‌ی اسطوره‌ای بهتر فهمیده می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Intertextual Interpretation of Mythology in the Top Three Plays of Children and Adolescent Theater Festivals

نویسندگان [English]

  • Effat Faregh 1
  • Ebrahim Mohammadi 2
  • Akbar Shayanseresht 1
1 Department of Persian Language and Literature Literature and Humanity Faculty University of Birjand
2 Department of Persian Language and Literature Literature and Humanity Faculty University of Birjand
چکیده [English]

Apart from being a means of entertainment and psychological drain, the dramatic works for children serve, on the one hand, as educational tools and, on the other, as a smooth path to pass the legacy of the past (traditions, rites, religion, politics, and the socio-ethical norms of society) over to the consciousness of the current generation, especially when the authors of the works draw on such important structural elements as time, place, plot, characters and, in times, even, the integrity of a story in an intertextual interaction with ancient texts. significant instances are myth and mythical narratives reflected always in various forms including stories, dramas and screenplays. Myth can help enrich the visual language and spiritual richness of the play, reflect national themes, and introduce children to national identities and some of the rituals and beliefs of their past. The themes are one of the most important elements of traditional Persian anecdotes that, in addition to structure, also strengthen their semantic and aesthetic aspects. The origins of fictional themes are numerous and sometimes unclear. Some of them are mythological elements and others are the offspring of people's culture. - Themes change function over the centuries and move from one field to another, one of the most widely used themes in Iranian culture is the apple, which due to its characteristics And its diverse functions, footprints in mythology have a significant presence and have even found their way into children's plays.

Dramatic Literature is the most appropriate mass media for a child audience with a very high degree of impact. The play (which is the product of the imagination of the writer, director and actor), when accompanied by reality (traces of reality woven into its fabric), will be able to the delicate mind of the child by using the imagination in the path. Creativity, advance. The imagination of the child is the product of paintings and images, speeches and gestures of the child, which is a kind of basic creativity. The child's mind is highly imaginative, so works created for the child's audience should use their imagination and engage them creatively with the work, which is made easier by myths and mythical themes. Using Genette’s transtextuality theory, especially hypertextuality, in a descriptive-analytic fashion, the way in which the myth of the forbidden fruit (Apple) in some of the top plays of children and adolescent theater festivals is recreated comes under scrutiny. The most importantly results revealed are as follows: The authors of these plays have mostly used the myth of the forbidden fruit by using the method of text extension (quantitative transformation). Of course, in some of the plays, in order to better understand and make the play attractive, the content is also seen. For this reason, the hidden angles of these plays are better understood in connection with these myths.

In general, children are the purest creatures on earth, their world is full of love and friendship. Their existence causes hope, affirmation of human aspirations, human interests and emotions, honesty and correctness.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Hypertextualite, The myth of the forbidden fruit, The story of an apple that didn'
  • t cut in half, King Jamshid, Band angoshti