نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکتری پژوهش هنر دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
2 استادیار سینما و انیمیشن/دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The novel and the performing arts can be considered as two comparable systems that often have similarities in narrative features. The aim of this study was to recognize how movies used narrative methods and techniques in conveying meaning to the audience, based on postmodern literary theories; and it tried to answer this question: Which of the postmodernist literary expression techniques that movies used to convey meaning? Interdisciplinary researches (literature and cinema) are necessary, which shows the closeness and similarity of these two artistic systems. This developmental descriptive-analytical study compares two different systems of literature and cinema. information was collected through library searching and sample movie viewing (Inception, 2010, Christopher Nolan). The data have been selected purposefully from the actions and dialogs. The information has been compared with the techniques that used in postmodern novels and has been analyzed and interpreted qualitatively.
Our finding showed that the narrative structure of “Inception” was almost liked to the postmodern novels with at least eleven narrative features of postmodern novels that have been used to convey meaning to the audience. Implicit to “Memento” and anachronism were the most important postmodernist feature in the “Inception”. The film consciously merged reality and representation and created a vicious circle in the viewer's mind. Simulation in the Jean Baudrillard theory, manifested itself in movies and signs were no longer a reflection of reality. Short circuit to closing the gap between the real world and the fiction was another feature of the narrative that used in postmodern movies. Presence the dead character such as “Mal” and its relationship to the living was similar to the phenomenon of short circuit in David Lodge 's theory. The principle of contradiction, can be manifest itself as a conceptual and visual inconsistency in the movies like novels. The conversations between Sative and Dammkab at the end of the film was the example of contradiction in the "Inception". Although only brief moments have passed, but the effects of aging can be seen on the faces of both characters clearly. Used the Freudian psychoanalytic theories has been effective in deepening the human characters of the story and example of bricolage in “Inception”.
Attention to subcultures and cultural eclecticism was very important in the postmodern novel, which was presented as the abolition of racist and patriarchal in this film. In fact, this phenomenon indicates the emergence of “Pluralism” in the postmodern world and collapse of “Centrist” in modern thought. Unexpected changes in camera angle, distortion and metamorphosis of image in “Inception” were the examples of the language disorder in postmodern novels. According to the content of the story, in some scenes of the film, the lack of attention to gravity is evident. Demonstrating the inability of human beings to penetrate to the deeper levels of dreams indicates the collapse of metanarratives in the fourth level of dreams. Like the postmodern novel, the film constantly reminds the viewer that the story and film are artificial. Planting an idea in the human mind was an example of the collapse of values in this film.